Fast online deconvolution of calcium imaging data. Friedrich, J., Zhou, P., & Paninski, L. PLOS Computational Biology, 13(3):e1005423, Public Library of Science, 3, 2017.
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Fluorescent calcium indicators are a popular means for observing the spiking activity of large neuronal populations, but extracting the activity of each neuron from raw fluorescence calcium imaging data is a nontrivial problem. We present a fast online active set method to solve this sparse non-negative deconvolution problem. Importantly, the algorithm 3progresses through each time series sequentially from beginning to end, thus enabling real-time online estimation of neural activity during the imaging session. Our algorithm is a generalization of the pool adjacent violators algorithm (PAVA) for isotonic regression and inherits its linear-time computational complexity. We gain remarkable increases in processing speed: more than one order of magnitude compared to currently employed state of the art convex solvers relying on interior point methods. Unlike these approaches, our method can exploit warm starts; therefore optimizing model hyperparameters only requires a handful of passes through the data. A minor modification can further improve the quality of activity inference by imposing a constraint on the minimum spike size. The algorithm enables real-time simultaneous deconvolution of O(105) traces of whole-brain larval zebrafish imaging data on a laptop.

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