Maria Montessori's Moral-Sense Theory. Frierson, P. R. History of Philosophy Quarterly, 32(3):271–292, July, 2015.
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Maria Montessori is not generally known as a philosopher. She is best known for the Montessori schools around the world that bear her name and for her (oft-misunderstood) pedagogical ideas about children's liberty. But after completing her medical degree and spending several years in professional medicine and psychiatry, including working with children, Montessori left most of her professional responsibilities to enroll in a PhD program in philosophy at the University of Rome, in order, as she put it, to "undertake the study of... the principles on which [pedagogy] is based" (MM, 33). There she studied under philosophers such as Giacomo Barzellotti (for history of philosophy), Pietro Ragnisco (moral philosophy), and one of the most important Italian philosophers of the early twentieth century, Antonio Labriola, not to mention philosophically inclined psychologists and anthropologists (Foschi 2012, Trabalzini 2003). At the same time, her personal interest in psychology intersected with Italian interest in American pragmatism (particularly William James), whose philosophical-psychological writings she cites throughout her works. Despite this philosophical background, Montessori's philosophical thought has not been taken seriously. At most, some have focused on her philosophy of education, and there has been some discussion of her feminism (Babini 2000; Babini and Lama 2000) and her place in the history of psychology (Babini 2000; Foschi 2012; Kramer 1976; Trabalzini 2003). Through providing an overview of her moral epistemology, the present essay aims to show that Montessori is a moral philosopher worth taking seriously.
@article{frierson_maria_2015-1,
	title = {Maria {Montessori}'s {Moral}-{Sense} {Theory}},
	volume = {32},
	issn = {0740-0675},
	url = {https://www.jstor.org/stable/44076448},
	abstract = {Maria Montessori is not generally known as a philosopher. She is best known for the Montessori schools around the world that bear her name and for her (oft-misunderstood) pedagogical ideas about children's liberty. But after completing her medical degree and spending several years in professional medicine and psychiatry, including working with children, Montessori left most of her professional responsibilities to enroll in a PhD program in philosophy at the University of Rome, in order, as she put it, to "undertake the study of... the principles on which [pedagogy] is based" (MM, 33). There she studied under philosophers such as Giacomo Barzellotti (for history of philosophy), Pietro Ragnisco (moral philosophy), and one of the most important Italian philosophers of the early twentieth century, Antonio Labriola, not to mention philosophically inclined psychologists and anthropologists (Foschi 2012, Trabalzini 2003). At the same time, her personal interest in psychology intersected with Italian interest in American pragmatism (particularly William James), whose philosophical-psychological writings she cites throughout her works. Despite this philosophical background, Montessori's philosophical thought has not been taken seriously. At most, some have focused on her philosophy of education, and there has been some discussion of her feminism (Babini 2000; Babini and Lama 2000) and her place in the history of psychology (Babini 2000; Foschi 2012; Kramer 1976; Trabalzini 2003). Through providing an overview of her moral epistemology, the present essay aims to show that Montessori is a moral philosopher worth taking seriously.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {3},
	journal = {History of Philosophy Quarterly},
	author = {Frierson, Patrick R.},
	month = jul,
	year = {2015},
	pages = {271--292}
}

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