Crystallization and melting of isotactic polypropylene in response to temperature modulation. Genovese, A. & Shanks, R. A. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 75(1):233--248, January, 2004.
Crystallization and melting of isotactic polypropylene in response to temperature modulation [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was crystallized using temperature modulation in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to thicken the crystals formed on cooling from the melt. A cool-heat modulation method was adopted for the preparation of the samples under a series of conditions. The effect of modulation parameters, such as temperature amplitude and period was monitored with the heating rate that followed. Thickening of the lamellae as a result of the crystallization treatment enabled by the cool-heat method lead to an increase in the peak melting temperature and the final traces of melting. For instance, iPP melting peak shifted by up to 3.5°C with temperature amplitude of 1.0°C while the crystallinity was increased from 0.45 (linearly cooled) to 0.53. Multiple melting endotherms were also observed in some cases, but this was sensitive to the temperature changes experienced on cooling. Even with a slower underlying cooling rate and small temperature amplitudes, some recrystallization and reorganization occurred during the subsequent heating scan. The crystallinity was increased significantly and this was attributed to the crystal perfection that occurred at the crystal growth surface. In addition, temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) has been used to study the melting of iPP for various crystallization treatments. The reversing and non-reversing contribution under the experimental time scale was modified by the relative crystal stability formed during crystallization. Much of the melting of iPP was found to be irreversible.
@article{ genovese_crystallization_2004,
  title = {Crystallization and melting of isotactic polypropylene in response to temperature modulation},
  volume = {75},
  issn = {1388-6150, 1572-8943},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/B%3AJTAN.0000017345.31134.8d},
  doi = {10.1023/B:JTAN.0000017345.31134.8d},
  abstract = {Isotactic polypropylene ({iPP}) was crystallized using temperature modulation in a differential scanning calorimeter ({DSC}) to thicken the crystals formed on cooling from the melt. A cool-heat modulation method was adopted for the preparation of the samples under a series of conditions. The effect of modulation parameters, such as temperature amplitude and period was monitored with the heating rate that followed. Thickening of the lamellae as a result of the crystallization treatment enabled by the cool-heat method lead to an increase in the peak melting temperature and the final traces of melting. For instance, {iPP} melting peak shifted by up to 3.5°C with temperature amplitude of 1.0°C while the crystallinity was increased from 0.45 (linearly cooled) to 0.53. Multiple melting endotherms were also observed in some cases, but this was sensitive to the temperature changes experienced on cooling. Even with a slower underlying cooling rate and small temperature amplitudes, some recrystallization and reorganization occurred during the subsequent heating scan. The crystallinity was increased significantly and this was attributed to the crystal perfection that occurred at the crystal growth surface. In addition, temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry ({TMDSC}) has been used to study the melting of {iPP} for various crystallization treatments. The reversing and non-reversing contribution under the experimental time scale was modified by the relative crystal stability formed during crystallization. Much of the melting of {iPP} was found to be irreversible.},
  language = {en},
  number = {1},
  urldate = {2014-09-12TZ},
  journal = {Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry},
  author = {Genovese, A. and Shanks, R. A.},
  month = {January},
  year = {2004},
  keywords = {{DSC}, Inorganic Chemistry, Measurement Science, Instrumentation, Physical Chemistry, Polymer Sciences, {TMDSC}, crystallization, isotactic polypropylene, melting},
  pages = {233--248}
}
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