Anonymous Communication with On-line and Off-line Onion Encoding. Gomulkiewicz, M., Klonowski, M., & Kutylowski, M. August 2004.
abstract   bibtex   
Encapsulating messages in onions is one of the major techniques providing anonymous communication in computer networks. To some extent, it provides security against traffic analysis by a passive adversary. However, it can be highly vulnerable to attacks by an active adversary. For instance, the adversary may perform a simple so\textendashcalled repetitive attack: a malicious server sends the same massage twice, then the adversary traces places where the same message appears twice \textendash revealing the route of the original message. A repetitive attack was examined for mix\textendashnetworks. However, none of the countermeasures designed is suitable for onion\textendashrouting. In this paper we propose an \textquotedblleftonion-like\textquotedblright encoding design based on universal reencryption. The onions constructed in this way can be used in a protocol that achieves the same goals as the classical onions, however, at the same time we achieve immunity against a repetitive attack. Even if an adversary disturbs communication and prevents processing a message somewhere on the onion path, it is easy to identify the malicious server performing the attack and provide an evidence of its illegal behavior.
@conference {wisa04-Klonowski,
	title = {Anonymous Communication with On-line and Off-line Onion Encoding},
	booktitle = {Proceedings of Workshop on Information Security Applications (WISA 2004)},
	year = {2004},
	month = {August},
	publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
	organization = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
	abstract = {Encapsulating messages in onions is one of the major techniques providing anonymous communication in computer networks. To some extent, it provides security against traffic analysis by a passive adversary. However, it can be highly vulnerable to attacks by an active adversary. For instance, the adversary may perform a simple so{\textendash}called repetitive attack: a malicious server sends the same massage twice, then the adversary traces places where the same message appears twice {\textendash} revealing the route of the original message. A repetitive attack was examined for mix{\textendash}networks. However, none of the countermeasures designed is suitable for onion{\textendash}routing.
In this paper we propose an {\textquotedblleft}onion-like{\textquotedblright} encoding design based on universal reencryption. The onions constructed in this way can be used in a protocol that achieves the same goals as the classical onions, however, at the same time we achieve immunity against a repetitive attack. Even if an adversary disturbs communication and prevents processing a message somewhere on the onion path, it is easy to identify the malicious server performing the attack and provide an evidence of its illegal behavior.},
	keywords = {onion routing, repetitive attack, universal re-encryption, unlinkability},
	isbn = {978-3-540-24302-1},
	author = {Marcin Gomulkiewicz and Marek Klonowski and Miroslaw Kutylowski}
}
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