Pages 103-110 in W, 1988. Paper abstract bibtex
Debris avalanches and underlying joint systems are responsible for some first order streams. The sequence for development of a stream begins with a small depression at the subsoil intersection of bedrock joints. The depression accumulates ground water. Chemical weathering proceeds faster in the depression, enhancing its water capacity. This process can continue indefinitely or be interrupted by a violent storm. An avalanche is initiated by hydraulic pressure through the water-saturated subsoil joint. At the storm peak, pressure is strong enough to break the adhesion between rock and water saturated soil and saprolite. The water inflated mass of rock and soil slides quickly down hill, leaving a chute which is the locus of a new first order stream.