Throwing light on petroleum: Simulated exposure of crude oil to sunlight and characterization using atmospheric pressure photoionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Griffiths, M., Da Campo, R., O'Connor, P., & Barrow, M. Analytical Chemistry, 2014.
abstract   bibtex   
The change in profile of crude oil following a release into the environment is a topic of significant interest, and there is a need to develop analytical methodologies for understanding natural processes which affect related complex mixture profiles. One such process is the exposure to sunlight. In the following investigation, three oil samples were studied: one served as a control, a second was subjected to irradiation by an ultraviolet lamp, and a third sample was irradiated by a SoLux light source which closely models the solar emission profile. The usage of the SoLux light source represents a new method which enables a controlled experiment to mimic the effects of sunlight upon the sample. Atmospheric pressure photoionization was selected as the primary ionization method due to the ability to ionize a broad range of compounds, including low polarity components which could not be observed using electrospray ionization. During a test of sample preparation methods, the addition of a protic cosolvent to the sample solutions was shown to broaden the range of heteroatom-containing components observed. Following characterization, it was found that the polyaromatic hydrocarbons did not change in profile, while compounds containing a heteroatom exhibited a tendency to oxidize following photoirradiation. Sulfur-containing compounds with a low number of double bond equivalents were among the most reactive components of the complex mixture. The photooxidation of compounds in petroleum, following exposure to sunlight, is expected to have significance with regards to solubility and potential toxicity. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
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 title = {Throwing light on petroleum: Simulated exposure of crude oil to sunlight and characterization using atmospheric pressure photoionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry},
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 abstract = {The change in profile of crude oil following a release into the environment is a topic of significant interest, and there is a need to develop analytical methodologies for understanding natural processes which affect related complex mixture profiles. One such process is the exposure to sunlight. In the following investigation, three oil samples were studied: one served as a control, a second was subjected to irradiation by an ultraviolet lamp, and a third sample was irradiated by a SoLux light source which closely models the solar emission profile. The usage of the SoLux light source represents a new method which enables a controlled experiment to mimic the effects of sunlight upon the sample. Atmospheric pressure photoionization was selected as the primary ionization method due to the ability to ionize a broad range of compounds, including low polarity components which could not be observed using electrospray ionization. During a test of sample preparation methods, the addition of a protic cosolvent to the sample solutions was shown to broaden the range of heteroatom-containing components observed. Following characterization, it was found that the polyaromatic hydrocarbons did not change in profile, while compounds containing a heteroatom exhibited a tendency to oxidize following photoirradiation. Sulfur-containing compounds with a low number of double bond equivalents were among the most reactive components of the complex mixture. The photooxidation of compounds in petroleum, following exposure to sunlight, is expected to have significance with regards to solubility and potential toxicity. © 2013 American Chemical Society.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Griffiths, M.T. and Da Campo, R. and O'Connor, P.B. and Barrow, M.P.},
 journal = {Analytical Chemistry},
 number = {1}
}

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