Nitrogen fluxes and retention in urban watershed ecosystems. Groffman, P., Law, N. L., Belt, K. T., Band, L. E., & Fisher, G. T. Ecosystems, 2004.
abstract   bibtex   
Although the watershed approach has long been used to study whole-ecosystem function, it has seldom been applied to study human-dominated systems, especially those dominated by urban and suburban land uses. Here we present 3 years of data on nitrogen (N) losses from one completely forested, one agricultural, and six urban/suburban watersheds, and input–output N budgets for suburban, forested, and agricultural watersheds. The work is a product of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, a long-term study of urban and suburban ecosystems, and a component of the US National Science Foundationrsquos long-term ecological research (LTER) network. As expected, urban and suburban watersheds had much higher N losses than did the completely forested watershed, with N yields ranging from 2.9 to 7.9 kg N ha–1 y–1 in the urban and suburban watersheds compared with less than 1 kg N ha–1 y–1 in the completely forested watershed. Yields from urban and suburban watersheds were lower than those from an agricultural watershed (13–19.8 kg N ha–1 y–1). Retention of N in the suburban watershed was surprisingly high, 75% of inputs, which were dominated by home lawn fertilizer (14.4 kg N ha–1 y–1) and atmospheric deposition (11.2 kg N ha–1 y–1). Detailed analysis of mechanisms of N retention, which must occur in the significant amounts of pervious surface present in urban and suburban watersheds, and which include storage in soils and vegetation and gaseous loss, is clearly warranted.
@article{groffman_nitrogen_2004,
	title = {Nitrogen fluxes and retention in urban watershed ecosystems},
	volume = {7},
	abstract = {Although the watershed approach has long been used to study whole-ecosystem function, it has seldom been applied to study human-dominated systems, especially those dominated by urban and suburban land uses. Here we present 3 years of data on nitrogen (N) losses from one completely forested, one agricultural, and six urban/suburban watersheds, and input–output N budgets for suburban, forested, and agricultural watersheds. The work is a product of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, a long-term study of urban and suburban ecosystems, and a component of the US National Science Foundationrsquos long-term ecological research (LTER) network. As expected, urban and suburban watersheds had much higher N losses than did the completely forested watershed, with N yields ranging from 2.9 to 7.9 kg N ha–1 y–1 in the urban and suburban watersheds compared with less than 1 kg N ha–1 y–1 in the completely forested watershed. Yields from urban and suburban watersheds were lower than those from an agricultural watershed (13–19.8 kg N ha–1 y–1). Retention of N in the suburban watershed was surprisingly high, 75\% of inputs, which were dominated by home lawn fertilizer (14.4 kg N ha–1 y–1) and atmospheric deposition (11.2 kg N ha–1 y–1). Detailed analysis of mechanisms of N retention, which must occur in the significant amounts of pervious surface present in urban and suburban watersheds, and which include storage in soils and vegetation and gaseous loss, is clearly warranted.},
	number = {4},
	journal = {Ecosystems},
	author = {Groffman, P.M. and Law, N. L. and Belt, K. T. and Band, L. E. and Fisher, G. T.},
	year = {2004},
	keywords = {nitrogen, BES, urban, ecosystems, ecosystem, watershed, long-term research}
}
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