The Impact of the Green Spruce Aphid Elatobium Abietinum (Walker) on Long-Term Growth of Sitka Spruce in Iceland. Halldórsson, G., Benedikz, T., Eggertsson, Ó., Oddsdóttir, E. S., & Óskarsson, H. 181(3):281–287.
The Impact of the Green Spruce Aphid Elatobium Abietinum (Walker) on Long-Term Growth of Sitka Spruce in Iceland [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The impact of green spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum (Walker)) outbreaks on the growth of a Sitka spruce stand in east Iceland during 1987 and 1991 was evaluated in a field study. This particular stand had never before been subjected to an insect outbreak. Growth of individual trees has been followed for 9 years since the last outbreak. Aphid-caused defoliation was assessed and the tree growth monitored before and after the outbreaks. Height and diameter growth was measured until the year 2000 and radial growth until the year 1999. After the outbreaks, height and diameter growth of unaffected trees have been significantly greater than that of the affected trees. During the period 1987-2000 the total height growth of unaffected, lightly affected and moderately affected trees was 4.3, 3.6 and 2.7~m and the total diameter growth was 76, 61 and 47~mm, respectively. No significant differences were found between heights or diameters of unaffected, lightly affected and moderately affected trees prior to the aphid outbreak of 1987. These findings suggest that E. abietinum will have a significant long-term effect on growth of individual Sitka spruce trees in Iceland and may therefore influence the natural selection of the first generation of Sitka spruce in Iceland.
@article{halldorssonImpactGreenSpruce2003,
  title = {The Impact of the Green Spruce Aphid {{Elatobium}} Abietinum ({{Walker}}) on Long-Term Growth of {{Sitka}} Spruce in {{Iceland}}},
  author = {Halldórsson, G. and Benedikz, T. and Eggertsson, Ó. and Oddsdóttir, E. S. and Óskarsson, H.},
  date = {2003-08},
  journaltitle = {Forest Ecology and Management},
  volume = {181},
  pages = {281--287},
  issn = {0378-1127},
  doi = {10.1016/s0378-1127(02)00658-8},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(02)00658-8},
  abstract = {The impact of green spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum (Walker)) outbreaks on the growth of a Sitka spruce stand in east Iceland during 1987 and 1991 was evaluated in a field study. This particular stand had never before been subjected to an insect outbreak. Growth of individual trees has been followed for 9 years since the last outbreak. Aphid-caused defoliation was assessed and the tree growth monitored before and after the outbreaks. Height and diameter growth was measured until the year 2000 and radial growth until the year 1999. After the outbreaks, height and diameter growth of unaffected trees have been significantly greater than that of the affected trees. During the period 1987-2000 the total height growth of unaffected, lightly affected and moderately affected trees was 4.3, 3.6 and 2.7~m and the total diameter growth was 76, 61 and 47~mm, respectively. No significant differences were found between heights or diameters of unaffected, lightly affected and moderately affected trees prior to the aphid outbreak of 1987. These findings suggest that E. abietinum will have a significant long-term effect on growth of individual Sitka spruce trees in Iceland and may therefore influence the natural selection of the first generation of Sitka spruce in Iceland.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13837502,forest-pests,iceland,picea-sitchensis,sitka-spruce},
  number = {3}
}
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