Invasiveness of transgenic vs. exotic plant species: How useful is the analogy?. Hancock, J., F. & Hokanson, K., E. Invasiveness of transgenic vs. exotic plant species: How useful is the analogy?, pages 187-192. Oregon State University, 2001.
abstract   bibtex   
Numerous ecologists and evolutionary biologists have incorrectly suggested that genetically engineered crops are analogous to exotic introductions. A growing body of evidence indicates that exotic species become invasive when they are introduced into a new area, where there are few to none of the natural constraints with which they evolved, and so they fill a new niche and their numbers explode. Most of the successful exotics are already good colonizers somewhere else and carry a whole syndrome of traits associated with weediness. This is very different from the situation facing transgenic forestry and agronomic crops. The crop antecedents are generally poor competitors outside the agroecosystem and carry few weediness traits. After the crop is engineered, it will not be removed from the complex array of natural constraints that currently faces it, and in most cases only one of those constraints will be removed by the addition of a new trait. In fact, it is much easier to predict the environmental risk of transgenic crops than an exotic introduction, as the level of risk in transgenics can be measured by evaluating the fitness impact of a single engineered trait, rather than a whole syndrome of potentially invasive traits. The risk of most transgene deployments can be effectively predicted by considering the phenotype of the transgene and the overall invasiveness of the crop itself.
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 title = {Invasiveness of transgenic vs. exotic plant species: How useful is the analogy?},
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 abstract = {Numerous ecologists and evolutionary biologists have incorrectly suggested that genetically engineered crops are analogous to exotic introductions. A growing body of evidence indicates that exotic species become invasive when they are introduced into a new area, where there are few to none of the natural constraints with which they evolved, and so they fill a new niche and their numbers explode. Most of the successful exotics are already good colonizers somewhere else and carry a whole syndrome of traits associated with weediness. This is very different from the situation facing transgenic forestry and agronomic crops. The crop antecedents are generally poor competitors outside the agroecosystem and carry few weediness traits. After the crop is engineered, it will not be removed from the complex array of natural constraints that currently faces it, and in most cases only one of those constraints will be removed by the addition of a new trait. In fact, it is much easier to predict the environmental risk of transgenic crops than an exotic introduction, as the level of risk in transgenics can be measured by evaluating the fitness impact of a single engineered trait, rather than a whole syndrome of potentially invasive traits. The risk of most transgene deployments can be effectively predicted by considering the phenotype of the transgene and the overall invasiveness of the crop itself.},
 bibtype = {inBook},
 author = {Hancock, James F and Hokanson, Karen E}
}
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