Olive Pest Control: Present Status and Prospects. Haniotakis, G. E. 28(9):1–9.
Olive Pest Control: Present Status and Prospects [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
Pest control is a major concern of olive grower s and its annual cost added to associated crop losses contribute substantially to the total cost of olive production. For the Mediterranean region, the major olive pr oducing area of the world, the following four categories of olive pests are recognized: a) Majo r or key pests, which cause damage of major economic importance throughout the region, require annual management and include only one species, the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Gmelin; b) Major secondary pests, which occur throughout the region, cause damage of major economic importance lo cally or occasionally and include the following two species, the olive moth, Prays oleae Bern and black scale, Saissetia oleae Bern. These two species were recently reduced to category b) from a) due to advances in olive pest management; c) Pests of limited or localized economic importance, wh ich cause damage of limited economic importance locally and/or occasionally, vary with locati on and/or time and may include the following: Parlatoria oleae Colvee, Aspidiotus hedere Vallot, Liothrips oleae Costa, Euphylura olivina Costa, Palpita unionalis Huebn., Euzophera pinguis Hw., Zeuzera pyrina L., Rhynchites cribripennis DeStr., Phloeotribus scarabaeoides Bern; d) Pests of no economic im portance, which under very rare circumstances may cause damage of limited economic importance loca lly. Pests of categories a) and b) only are discussed here. Present control methods for the olive fruit fly incl ude: a) Bait sprays, current standard control method, applied from the ground or air; b) Cover sp rays; c) Mass trapping. A large variety of toxic, sticky, or liquid-containing traps are available for this purpose. Advances in olive fruit fly control include: The im provement of crop protec tion level with parallel reduction of bait applications due to a better understanding of the eco-biology of the fly, modeling of its population dynamics and therefore better pr ognosis, trap calibration, better fly population monitoring systems, and establishment of realistic ec onomic threshold levels; the elimination of bait applications from the air in E.U.; the production of low-cost attractants from local sources; the development of alternative control methods and their use in organic olive production, i.e., an effective mass trapping method and baits using natural pesticides, old and new. Future prospects in olive fruit fly control include : Further improvement of crop protection levels with further reduction of pesticid e use through refining, local validation and wide utilization of the existing models of population dynamics; use of new technologies for automation of field data collection and transfer to processing, and warn ing centers. Furthermore, new knowledge acquired through basic research currently under way in the fields of basic and applied biology, genetics, biotechnology, material science, and behavior may lead to discovery of new tools, or improvement of existing ones for the management of this pest. Cu rrent control methods for the olive moth include conventional insecticide applications in the form of sprays or dusts. Effective alternative control methods include the use of Bacillus thuringiensis (dipel), and chitin biosynthesis inhibitors (alsystin- triflumuron). Current control methods for black scale include sp rays with conventional pesticides. Alternative methods include cultural practices, biol ogical control, and oil applications.
@article{haniotakisOlivePestControl2005,
  title = {Olive Pest Control: {{Present}} Status and Prospects},
  author = {Haniotakis, George E.},
  date = {2005},
  journaltitle = {IOBC/WPRS Bulletin},
  volume = {28},
  pages = {1--9},
  url = {http://mfkp.org/INRMM/article/13594152},
  abstract = {Pest control is a major concern of olive grower s and its annual cost added to associated crop losses contribute substantially to the total cost of olive production. For the Mediterranean region, the major olive pr oducing area of the world, the following four categories of olive pests are recognized: a) Majo r or key pests, which cause damage of major economic importance throughout the region, require annual management and include only one species, the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Gmelin; b) Major secondary pests, which occur throughout the region, cause damage of major economic importance lo cally or occasionally and include the following two species, the olive moth, Prays oleae Bern and black scale, Saissetia oleae Bern. These two species were recently reduced to category b) from a) due to advances in olive pest management; c) Pests of limited or localized economic importance, wh ich cause damage of limited economic importance locally and/or occasionally, vary with locati on and/or time and may include the following: Parlatoria oleae Colvee, Aspidiotus hedere Vallot, Liothrips oleae Costa, Euphylura olivina Costa, Palpita unionalis Huebn., Euzophera pinguis Hw., Zeuzera pyrina L., Rhynchites cribripennis DeStr., Phloeotribus scarabaeoides Bern; d) Pests of no economic im portance, which under very rare circumstances may cause damage of limited economic importance loca lly. Pests of categories a) and b) only are discussed here. Present control methods for the olive fruit fly incl ude: a) Bait sprays, current standard control method, applied from the ground or air; b) Cover sp rays; c) Mass trapping. A large variety of toxic, sticky, or liquid-containing traps are available for this purpose. Advances in olive fruit fly control include: The im provement of crop protec tion level with parallel reduction of bait applications due to a better understanding of the eco-biology of the fly, modeling of its population dynamics and therefore better pr ognosis, trap calibration, better fly population monitoring systems, and establishment of realistic ec onomic threshold levels; the elimination of bait applications from the air in E.U.; the production of low-cost attractants from local sources; the development of alternative control methods and their use in organic olive production, i.e., an effective mass trapping method and baits using natural pesticides, old and new. Future prospects in olive fruit fly control include : Further improvement of crop protection levels with further reduction of pesticid e use through refining, local validation and wide utilization of the existing models of population dynamics; use of new technologies for automation of field data collection and transfer to processing, and warn ing centers. Furthermore, new knowledge acquired through basic research currently under way in the fields of basic and applied biology, genetics, biotechnology, material science, and behavior may lead to discovery of new tools, or improvement of existing ones for the management of this pest. Cu rrent control methods for the olive moth include conventional insecticide applications in the form of sprays or dusts. Effective alternative control methods include the use of Bacillus thuringiensis (dipel), and chitin biosynthesis inhibitors (alsystin- triflumuron). Current control methods for black scale include sp rays with conventional pesticides. Alternative methods include cultural practices, biol ogical control, and oil applications.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13594152,agricultural-resources,forest-resources,olea-spp,plant-diseases,plant-pests},
  number = {9}
}
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