Effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their derivatives on protein disulfide isomerase activity and growth hormone release of GH3 cells. Hashimoto, S., Yoshimura, H., Okada, K., Uramaru, N., Sugihara, K., Kitamura, S., & Imaoka, S. Chemical research in toxicology, 25(3):656--63, March, 2012.
Effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their derivatives on protein disulfide isomerase activity and growth hormone release of GH3 cells. [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used in a variety of consumer products such as flame retardants and recently have been known to be widespread environmental pollutants, which probably affect biological functions of mammalian cells. However, the risk posed by PBDE metabolites has not been clarified. Our previous study suggested that bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, binds to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and inhibits its activity. PDI is an isomerase enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum and facilitates the formation or cleavage of disulfide bonds. PDI consists of a, b, b', and a' domains and the c region, with the a and a' domains having isomerase active sites. In the present study, we tested the effects of 10 kinds of PBDE compounds and their metabolites on PDI. OH-PBDEs specifically inhibited the isomerase activity of PDI, with 4'-OH-PBDE more effective than 2' (or 2)-OH-PBDEs. 4'-OH-PBDE inhibited the isomerase activity of the b'a'c fragment but not that of ab and a'c, suggesting that the b' domain of PDI is essential for the inhibition by 4'-OH-PBDE. We also investigated the effects of these chemicals on the production of growth hormone (GH) in GH3 cells. In GH3 cells, levels of mRNA and protein of GH stimulated by T(3) were reduced by 4'-OH-PBDE and 4'-MeO-PBDE. The reduction in GH expression caused by these compounds was not changed by the overexpression or knockdown of PDI in GH3 cells, while these manipulations of PDI levels significantly suppressed the expression of GH. These results suggest that the biological effects of PBDEs differed depending on their brominated and hydroxylated positions.
@article{hashimoto_effects_2012,
	title = {Effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers ({PBDEs}) and their derivatives on protein disulfide isomerase activity and growth hormone release of {GH}3 cells.},
	volume = {25},
	issn = {1520-5010},
	url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22201216},
	doi = {10.1021/tx200374s},
	abstract = {Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used in a variety of consumer products such as flame retardants and recently have been known to be widespread environmental pollutants, which probably affect biological functions of mammalian cells. However, the risk posed by PBDE metabolites has not been clarified. Our previous study suggested that bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, binds to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and inhibits its activity. PDI is an isomerase enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum and facilitates the formation or cleavage of disulfide bonds. PDI consists of a, b, b', and a' domains and the c region, with the a and a' domains having isomerase active sites. In the present study, we tested the effects of 10 kinds of PBDE compounds and their metabolites on PDI. OH-PBDEs specifically inhibited the isomerase activity of PDI, with 4'-OH-PBDE more effective than 2' (or 2)-OH-PBDEs. 4'-OH-PBDE inhibited the isomerase activity of the b'a'c fragment but not that of ab and a'c, suggesting that the b' domain of PDI is essential for the inhibition by 4'-OH-PBDE. We also investigated the effects of these chemicals on the production of growth hormone (GH) in GH3 cells. In GH3 cells, levels of mRNA and protein of GH stimulated by T(3) were reduced by 4'-OH-PBDE and 4'-MeO-PBDE. The reduction in GH expression caused by these compounds was not changed by the overexpression or knockdown of PDI in GH3 cells, while these manipulations of PDI levels significantly suppressed the expression of GH. These results suggest that the biological effects of PBDEs differed depending on their brominated and hydroxylated positions.},
	number = {3},
	journal = {Chemical research in toxicology},
	author = {Hashimoto, Shoko and Yoshimura, Hiromi and Okada, Kazushi and Uramaru, Naoto and Sugihara, Kazumi and Kitamura, Shigeyuki and Imaoka, Susumu},
	month = mar,
	year = {2012},
	pmid = {22201216},
	keywords = {Animals, Flame Retardants: toxicity, Flame retardants, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Growth Hormone, Growth Hormone: genetics, Growth Hormone: metabolism, Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers, Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers: toxicity, Messenger, Messenger: metabolism, Protein Disulfide-Isomerases, Protein Disulfide-Isomerases: antagonists \& inhibi, Protein Disulfide-Isomerases: genetics, Protein Disulfide-Isomerases: metabolism, RNA, Rats, cell line},
	pages = {656--63}
}

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