Learning from Imbalanced Data. He, H. & Garcia, E. A. 21(9):1263–1284.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
With the continuous expansion of data availability in many large-scale, complex, and networked systems, such as surveillance, security, Internet, and finance, it becomes critical to advance the fundamental understanding of knowledge discovery and analysis from raw data to support decision-making processes. Although existing knowledge discovery and data engineering techniques have shown great success in many real-world applications, the problem of learning from imbalanced data (the imbalanced learning problem) is a relatively new challenge that has attracted growing attention from both academia and industry. The imbalanced learning problem is concerned with the performance of learning algorithms in the presence of underrepresented data and severe class distribution skews. Due to the inherent complex characteristics of imbalanced data sets, learning from such data requires new understandings, principles, algorithms, and tools to transform vast amounts of raw data efficiently into information and knowledge representation. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the development of research in learning from imbalanced data. Our focus is to provide a critical review of the nature of the problem, the state-of-the-art technologies, and the current assessment metrics used to evaluate learning performance under the imbalanced learning scenario. Furthermore, in order to stimulate future research in this field, we also highlight the major opportunities and challenges, as well as potential important research directions for learning from imbalanced data.
@article{heLearningImbalancedData2009,
  title = {Learning from Imbalanced Data},
  volume = {21},
  issn = {10414347},
  doi = {10.1109/TKDE.2008.239},
  abstract = {With the continuous expansion of data availability in many large-scale, complex, and networked systems, such as surveillance, security, Internet, and finance, it becomes critical to advance the fundamental understanding of knowledge discovery and analysis from raw data to support decision-making processes. Although existing knowledge discovery and data engineering techniques have shown great success in many real-world applications, the problem of learning from imbalanced data (the imbalanced learning problem) is a relatively new challenge that has attracted growing attention from both academia and industry. The imbalanced learning problem is concerned with the performance of learning algorithms in the presence of underrepresented data and severe class distribution skews. Due to the inherent complex characteristics of imbalanced data sets, learning from such data requires new understandings, principles, algorithms, and tools to transform vast amounts of raw data efficiently into information and knowledge representation. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the development of research in learning from imbalanced data. Our focus is to provide a critical review of the nature of the problem, the state-of-the-art technologies, and the current assessment metrics used to evaluate learning performance under the imbalanced learning scenario. Furthermore, in order to stimulate future research in this field, we also highlight the major opportunities and challenges, as well as potential important research directions for learning from imbalanced data.},
  number = {9},
  journaltitle = {IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering},
  date = {2009},
  pages = {1263--1284},
  keywords = {Active learning,Assessment metrics,Classification,Cost-sensitive learning,Imbalanced learning,Kernel-based learning,Sampling methods},
  author = {He, Haibo and Garcia, Edwardo A.},
  file = {/home/dimitri/Nextcloud/Zotero/storage/P7FZG872/He, Garcia - 2009 - Learning from imbalanced data.pdf},
  eprinttype = {pmid},
  eprint = {24807526}
}
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