Growing Scattered Broadleaved Tree Species in Europe in a Changing Climate: A Review of Risks and Opportunities. Hemery, G. E., Clark, J. R., Aldinger, E., Claessens, H., Malvolti, M. E., O'connor, E., Raftoyannis, Y., Savill, P. S., & Brus, R. 83(1):65–81.
Growing Scattered Broadleaved Tree Species in Europe in a Changing Climate: A Review of Risks and Opportunities [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Scattered broadleaved tree species such as ashes (Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.), black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), birches (Betula pendula Roth. and Betula pubescens Ehrh.), elms (Ulmus glabra Huds., Ulmus laevis Pall. and Ulmus minor Mill.), limes (Tilia cordata Mill. and Tilia platyphyllos Scop.), maples (Acer campestre L., Acer platanoides L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L.), wild service tree (Sorbus domestica L. and Sorbus torminalis L. Crantz), walnuts (Juglans regia L., Juglans nigra L. and hybrids) and wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) are important components of European forests. Many species have high economic, environmental and social values. Their scattered distributions, exacerbated in many cases by human activity, may make them more vulnerable to climate change. They are likely to have less ability to reproduce or adapt to shifting climate space than more widespread species. The general impacts of climate change on these scattered species are reviewed. Some specific risks and opportunities are highlighted for each species, although there is considerable uncertainty and therefore, difficulty in quantifying many specific risks and/or impacts on scattered broadleaved tree species. [Excerpt: Conclusions] This review has revealed considerable uncertainty and therefore difficulty in quantifying many specific risks and/or impacts on scattered broadleaved tree species. However, where specific evidence or modelling does exist, as reviewed in the species sections above, these are summarized in Table 3. Caution should be exercised in attributing too much weight to the summary. It is extremely difficult to say whether an impact is high or low and to quantify these in a realistic sense. For any given species and factor, there is a high degree of uncertainty as, in most cases, no research has been undertaken to answer these questions. However, this review may provide a foundation for discussion among scientists and policy makers, and in so doing, it may provide an indication of future research priorities and policy directions. [\n] The recent completion of an European Union-funded COST Action (E42) that considered the growing of valuable (scattered) broadleaved tree species, involving some 100 scientists and practitioners from 25 European countries (Hemery et al., 2008), concluded that there is a lack of knowledge about provenances and genetics of scattered broadleaves, especially concerning their reaction to climate change. Hemery et al. (2008) recommended that the knowledge base of existing seed orchards and clonal reproductive material should be communicated more widely. Scattered broadleaved trees often are important characteristics in the landscape and valuable elements of biological diversity. When these are well managed, they may provide additional benefits to society and the environment. Scattered broadleaved tree species may enhance ecological, economic and social values of our forests and thereby contribute to the sustainability of forestry.
@article{hemeryGrowingScatteredBroadleaved2010,
  title = {Growing Scattered Broadleaved Tree Species in {{Europe}} in a Changing Climate: A Review of Risks and Opportunities},
  author = {Hemery, G. E. and Clark, J. R. and Aldinger, E. and Claessens, H. and Malvolti, M. E. and O'connor, E. and Raftoyannis, Y. and Savill, P. S. and Brus, R.},
  date = {2010},
  journaltitle = {Forestry},
  volume = {83},
  pages = {65--81},
  issn = {1464-3626},
  doi = {10.1093/forestry/cpp034},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/cpp034},
  abstract = {Scattered broadleaved tree species such as ashes (Fraxinus excelsior L. and Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.), black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), birches (Betula pendula Roth. and Betula pubescens Ehrh.), elms (Ulmus glabra Huds., Ulmus laevis Pall. and Ulmus minor Mill.), limes (Tilia cordata Mill. and Tilia platyphyllos Scop.), maples (Acer campestre L., Acer platanoides L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L.), wild service tree (Sorbus domestica L. and Sorbus torminalis L. Crantz), walnuts (Juglans regia L., Juglans nigra L. and hybrids) and wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) are important components of European forests. Many species have high economic, environmental and social values. Their scattered distributions, exacerbated in many cases by human activity, may make them more vulnerable to climate change. They are likely to have less ability to reproduce or adapt to shifting climate space than more widespread species. The general impacts of climate change on these scattered species are reviewed. Some specific risks and opportunities are highlighted for each species, although there is considerable uncertainty and therefore, difficulty in quantifying many specific risks and/or impacts on scattered broadleaved tree species.

[Excerpt: Conclusions]

This review has revealed considerable uncertainty and therefore difficulty in quantifying many specific risks and/or impacts on scattered broadleaved tree species. However, where specific evidence or modelling does exist, as reviewed in the species sections above, these are summarized in Table 3. Caution should be exercised in attributing too much weight to the summary. It is extremely difficult to say whether an impact is high or low and to quantify these in a realistic sense. For any given species and factor, there is a high degree of uncertainty as, in most cases, no research has been undertaken to answer these questions. However, this review may provide a foundation for discussion among scientists and policy makers, and in so doing, it may provide an indication of future research priorities and policy directions. 

[\textbackslash n] The recent completion of an European Union-funded COST Action (E42) that considered the growing of valuable (scattered) broadleaved tree species, involving some 100 scientists and practitioners from 25 European countries (Hemery et al., 2008), concluded that there is a lack of knowledge about provenances and genetics of scattered broadleaves, especially concerning their reaction to climate change. Hemery et al. (2008) recommended that the knowledge base of existing seed orchards and clonal reproductive material should be communicated more widely. Scattered broadleaved trees often are important characteristics in the landscape and valuable elements of biological diversity. When these are well managed, they may provide additional benefits to society and the environment. Scattered broadleaved tree species may enhance ecological, economic and social values of our forests and thereby contribute to the sustainability of forestry.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13406120,~to-add-doi-URL,acer-spp,alnus-glutinosa,betula-pendula,betula-pubescens,broadleaved,climate-change,forest-resources,fraxinus-spp,juglans-spp,prunus-avium,sorbus-spp,species-distribution,tilia-spp,ulmus-spp},
  number = {1}
}
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