Blood flow measurements with radionuclide-labeled particles. Heymann, M.; Payne, B.; Hoffman, J.; and Rudolph, A. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 20(1):55--79, 1977.
  author =       "M.A. Heymann and B.D. Payne and J.I. Hoffman and A.M.
  title =        "Blood flow measurements with radionuclide-labeled
  journal =      "Prog Cardiovasc Dis",
  year =         "1977",
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "55--79",
  robnote =      "When appropriately and correctly applied, the
                 microsphere technique is relatively simple and
                 extremely accurate. Distribution patterns, both of
                 total systemic arterial blood flow or venous return as
                 well as within specific organs, can be measured.
                 Several techniques have been applied to quantitate flow
                 using microspheres; the reference sample method is
                 extremely simple and by far the most accurate of all.
                 Collection of venous effluent is perhaps more accurate
                 but requires extensive surgery and is almost certainly
                 the least physiologic. Other methods used for
                 quantitation, such as bolus injections of indocyanine
                 green dye or in fusions of diffusable indicators, are
                 considerably less accurate and therefore significantly
                 reduce the reliability of the microsphere technique.
                 Selection of the appropriate size microspheres allows
                 for definition of arteriovenous anastomoses as well as
                 the measurement of organ blood flows and distribution
                 of blood flow within those organs. In most instances,
                 smaller microspheres (15mu diameter or 8-10mu diameter)
                 have significant advantages over larger ones. They are
                 distributed more like red cells, obstruct less of the
                 vascular bed, are less variable in size, and can be
                 given in significantly greater numbers. This latter
                 point is important, since the statistical criteria need
                 to be satisfied and the use of small spheres allows for
                 the more reliable measurement of blood flow to small
                 organs or to small regions of organs.",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 20 17:40:22 2001",
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