Sex inequalities in ischaemic heart disease in general practice: cross sectional survey. Hippisley-Cox, J., Pringle, M., Crown, N., Meal, A., & Wynn, A. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 322(7290):832, April, 2001.
abstract   bibtex   
OBJECTIVE: To study differences in treatment for men and women with ischaemic heart disease by using standards defined in England's national service framework for coronary artery disease. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey using routinely collected data. SETTING: 18 practices in 18 primary care groups in Trent Region. SUBJECTS: 5891 men and women aged over 35 years with a diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or prescription for nitrates recorded on computer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Difference in the proportion of men and women with ischaemic heart disease and taking lipid lowering treatment. RESULTS: Women were less likely than men to have a recording of body mass index (79% (2197/2783) v 82% (2552/3102), P=0.002), smoking (86% (2386) v 89% (2779), P\textless0.0001), and blood pressure (95% (2643) v 96% (2986), P=0.04). Women were also less likely to have a recording of fasting cholesterol concentration (35% (968) v 50% (1550), P\textless0.0001) but were more likely to be obese (25% (558/2197) v 20% (514/2552), P\textless0.0001) and have their most recently recorded blood pressure value over the recommended 140/85 mm Hg (60% (1598/2643) v 52% (1553/2986), P\textless0.0001). Although a higher proportion of women had a raised serum cholesterol concentration (77% (749/968) v 67% (1043/1550), P\textless0.0001), men were more likely to take aspirin (76% (2358) v 71% (1979), P\textless0.0001), have a recorded diagnosis of hyperlipidaemia (13% (418) v 10% (274), P\textless0.0001), and be prescribed lipid lowering drugs (31% (973) v 21% (596), P\textless0.0001). These differences remained despite adjustments for the practice where the patient is registered, age, smoking status, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a systematic bias towards men compared with women in terms of secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease.
@article{hippisley-cox_sex_2001,
	title = {Sex inequalities in ischaemic heart disease in general practice: cross sectional survey},
	volume = {322},
	issn = {0959-8138},
	shorttitle = {Sex inequalities in ischaemic heart disease in general practice},
	abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To study differences in treatment for men and women with ischaemic heart disease by using standards defined in England's national service framework for coronary artery disease.
DESIGN: Cross sectional survey using routinely collected data.
SETTING: 18 practices in 18 primary care groups in Trent Region.
SUBJECTS: 5891 men and women aged over 35 years with a diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or prescription for nitrates recorded on computer.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Difference in the proportion of men and women with ischaemic heart disease and taking lipid lowering treatment.
RESULTS: Women were less likely than men to have a recording of body mass index (79\% (2197/2783) v 82\% (2552/3102), P=0.002), smoking (86\% (2386) v 89\% (2779), P{\textless}0.0001), and blood pressure (95\% (2643) v 96\% (2986), P=0.04). Women were also less likely to have a recording of fasting cholesterol concentration (35\% (968) v 50\% (1550), P{\textless}0.0001) but were more likely to be obese (25\% (558/2197) v 20\% (514/2552), P{\textless}0.0001) and have their most recently recorded blood pressure value over the recommended 140/85 mm Hg (60\% (1598/2643) v 52\% (1553/2986), P{\textless}0.0001). Although a higher proportion of women had a raised serum cholesterol concentration (77\% (749/968) v 67\% (1043/1550), P{\textless}0.0001), men were more likely to take aspirin (76\% (2358) v 71\% (1979), P{\textless}0.0001), have a recorded diagnosis of hyperlipidaemia (13\% (418) v 10\% (274), P{\textless}0.0001), and be prescribed lipid lowering drugs (31\% (973) v 21\% (596), P{\textless}0.0001). These differences remained despite adjustments for the practice where the patient is registered, age, smoking status, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest a systematic bias towards men compared with women in terms of secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {7290},
	journal = {BMJ (Clinical research ed.)},
	author = {Hippisley-Cox, J. and Pringle, M. and Crown, N. and Meal, A. and Wynn, A.},
	month = apr,
	year = {2001},
	pmid = {11290638},
	pmcid = {PMC30561},
	keywords = {Adult, Aged, Bias (Epidemiology), Cholesterol, Cross-Sectional Studies, Empirical Approach, Female, Great Britain, Humans, Hyperlipidemias, Hypolipidemic Agents, Life Style, Male, Medical Records, Middle Aged, Myocardial Ischemia, Patient Selection, Professional Patient Relationship, Sex Factors, Sex Ratio, diabetes mellitus},
	pages = {832}
}
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