Synthesis and characterization of bromophenol glucuronide and sulfate conjugates for their direct LC-MS/MS quantification in human urine as potential exposure markers for polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Ho, K., Murphy, M. B, Wan, Y., Fong, B. M., Tam, S., Giesy, J. P, Leung, K. S., & Lam, M. H. Analytical chemistry, 84(22):9881--8, November, 2012.
Synthesis and characterization of bromophenol glucuronide and sulfate conjugates for their direct LC-MS/MS quantification in human urine as potential exposure markers for polybrominated diphenyl ethers. [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Bromophenol glucuronide and sulfate conjugates have been reported to be products of mammalian metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a group of additive flame-retardants found ubiquitously in the environment. In order to explore their occurrence in human urine, four water-soluble bromophenol conjugates, namely, 2,4-dibromophenyl glucuronide, 2,4,6-tribromophenyl glucuronide, 2,4-dibromophenyl sulfate, and 2,4,6-tribromophenyl sulfate, were synthesized, purified, and characterized. An analytical protocol using solid-phase extraction and ion-paired liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) quantification has been developed for the direct and simultaneous determination of these glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in human urine samples. The limit of detections for all analytes were below 13 pg mL(-1), with 73-101% analyte recovery and 7.2-8.6% repeatability. The method was applied to analyze 20 human urine samples collected randomly from voluntary donors in Hong Kong SAR, China. All the samples were found to contain one or more of the bromophenol conjugates, with concentration ranging from 0.13-2.45 μg g(-1) creatinine. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analytical protocol for the direct and simultaneous monitoring of these potential phase II metabolites of PBDEs in human urine. Our results have also suggested the potential of these bromophenol conjugates in human urine to be convenient molecular markers for the quantification of population exposure to PBDEs.
@article{ho_synthesis_2012,
	title = {Synthesis and characterization of bromophenol glucuronide and sulfate conjugates for their direct {LC}-{MS}/{MS} quantification in human urine as potential exposure markers for polybrominated diphenyl ethers.},
	volume = {84},
	issn = {1520-6882},
	url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23075377},
	doi = {10.1021/ac302161t},
	abstract = {Bromophenol glucuronide and sulfate conjugates have been reported to be products of mammalian metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a group of additive flame-retardants found ubiquitously in the environment. In order to explore their occurrence in human urine, four water-soluble bromophenol conjugates, namely, 2,4-dibromophenyl glucuronide, 2,4,6-tribromophenyl glucuronide, 2,4-dibromophenyl sulfate, and 2,4,6-tribromophenyl sulfate, were synthesized, purified, and characterized. An analytical protocol using solid-phase extraction and ion-paired liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) quantification has been developed for the direct and simultaneous determination of these glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in human urine samples. The limit of detections for all analytes were below 13 pg mL(-1), with 73-101\% analyte recovery and 7.2-8.6\% repeatability. The method was applied to analyze 20 human urine samples collected randomly from voluntary donors in Hong Kong SAR, China. All the samples were found to contain one or more of the bromophenol conjugates, with concentration ranging from 0.13-2.45 μg g(-1) creatinine. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analytical protocol for the direct and simultaneous monitoring of these potential phase II metabolites of PBDEs in human urine. Our results have also suggested the potential of these bromophenol conjugates in human urine to be convenient molecular markers for the quantification of population exposure to PBDEs.},
	number = {22},
	journal = {Analytical chemistry},
	author = {Ho, Ka-Lok and Murphy, Margaret B and Wan, Yi and Fong, Bonnie M-W and Tam, Sidney and Giesy, John P and Leung, Kelvin S-Y and Lam, Michael H-W},
	month = nov,
	year = {2012},
	pmid = {23075377},
	keywords = {Flame retardants, unsure},
	pages = {9881--8}
}

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