Visual Image-Induced Craving for Ethanol (VICE): Development, Validation, and a Pilot fMRI Study. Holla, B., Viswanath, B., Agarwal, S. M., Kalmady, S. V., Maroky, A. S., Jayarajan, D., Bharath, R. D., Venkatasubramanian, G., & Benegal, V. Indian journal of psychological medicine, 36(2):164–169, April, 2014.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
BACKGROUND: Craving induction in a controlled environment is helpful in the research of craving mechanism and its role in development of alcohol dependence (AD). We describe a novel tool Visual Image-induced Craving for Ethanol (VICE) and its effects on brain activation with pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alcohol-related visual cues (ARCs) in 5 scenarios were photographed, which included pictures of bars, alcoholic beverage bottles, pouring of alcohol into glasses, glasses filled with alcohol, and scenes of people sipping alcohol, counterbalanced with neutral pictures (involving water, milk etc.,). Craving scores were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with AD to validate this tool. In the pilot fMRI (3-Tesla) study, 5 patients were examined using VICE in a symptom provocation model. Group level-fixed effect analysis of brain activation differences was done using SPM8. RESULTS: VICE showed a high internal consistency with Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.86, which confirmed its reliability. Concurrent validity of VICE was demonstrated via its convergence with the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale. ARCs had significantly greater mean craving scores than neutral cues in all the 5 scenarios (intentional validity). In the pilot fMRI, patients were found to have greater activation while viewing ARCs compared to the neutral cues in right insular cortex and deficient activation in right orbitofrontal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: The VICE is a reliable and valid measure of alcohol craving with promising clinical and translational research implications. Preliminary fMRI findings indicate it can be used as a symptom provocation tool for fMRI experiments.
@article{holla_visual_2014,
	title = {Visual {Image}-{Induced} {Craving} for {Ethanol} ({VICE}): {Development}, {Validation}, and a {Pilot} {fMRI} {Study}.},
	volume = {36},
	issn = {0253-7176 0975-1564},
	doi = {10.4103/0253-7176.130984},
	abstract = {BACKGROUND: Craving induction in a controlled environment is helpful in the research of craving mechanism and its role in development of alcohol dependence (AD). We  describe a novel tool Visual Image-induced Craving for Ethanol (VICE) and its  effects on brain activation with pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).  MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alcohol-related visual cues (ARCs) in 5 scenarios were  photographed, which included pictures of bars, alcoholic beverage bottles, pouring  of alcohol into glasses, glasses filled with alcohol, and scenes of people sipping  alcohol, counterbalanced with neutral pictures (involving water, milk etc.,).  Craving scores were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with AD to validate this  tool. In the pilot fMRI (3-Tesla) study, 5 patients were examined using VICE in a  symptom provocation model. Group level-fixed effect analysis of brain activation  differences was done using SPM8. RESULTS: VICE showed a high internal consistency  with Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.86, which confirmed its reliability. Concurrent  validity of VICE was demonstrated via its convergence with the Penn Alcohol Craving  Scale. ARCs had significantly greater mean craving scores than neutral cues in all  the 5 scenarios (intentional validity). In the pilot fMRI, patients were found to  have greater activation while viewing ARCs compared to the neutral cues in right  insular cortex and deficient activation in right orbitofrontal cortex. CONCLUSIONS:  The VICE is a reliable and valid measure of alcohol craving with promising clinical  and translational research implications. Preliminary fMRI findings indicate it can  be used as a symptom provocation tool for fMRI experiments.},
	language = {eng},
	number = {2},
	journal = {Indian journal of psychological medicine},
	author = {Holla, Bharath and Viswanath, Biju and Agarwal, Sri Mahavir and Kalmady, Sunil Vasu and Maroky, Ami Sebastian and Jayarajan, Deepak and Bharath, Rose Dawn and Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan and Benegal, Vivek},
	month = apr,
	year = {2014},
	pmid = {24860218},
	pmcid = {PMC4031585},
	keywords = {Alcohol, craving, imaging, neurobiology, symptom provocation},
	pages = {164--169}
}

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