Reproductive Patterns of Betula Pendula and B. Pubescens Coll. along a Regional Altitudinal Gradient in Northern Sweden. Holm, S. 17(1):60–72.
Reproductive Patterns of Betula Pendula and B. Pubescens Coll. along a Regional Altitudinal Gradient in Northern Sweden [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The Scandinavian birches have different distribution patterns Betula pendula reaches its upper tree limit at the bottom of the valleys in the Scandes, while B pubescens ssp pubescens extends above the B pendula limit, and merges into B pubescens ssp tortuosa at higher elevations In a 6 yr study I quantified the spatial and temporal variation in the reproduction of these species along a regional altitudinal gradient Betula pendula showed a steeper altitudinal decrease of seed germinability and seed germination rate than B pubescens coll Seed weight was strongly and positively correlated with altitude for B pubescens, but not for B pendula The proportion of seeds infected by gall midges Semudobia coll, was much higher in B pendula than in B pubescens coll especially in the mountain area All birch taxa showed large annual variations in quantity and quality of seeds The sapling density was higher in B pubescens ssp pubescens stands than in B pendula and B pubescens ssp tortuosa stands in the mountains The vegetative reproduction was about three times higher for B pubescens ssp tortuosa, than for the other two birches These results indicate that the altitudinal variation in reproduction among the birch taxa mirror their present distribution patterns
@article{holmReproductivePatternsBetula1994,
  title = {Reproductive Patterns of {{Betula}} Pendula and {{B}}. Pubescens Coll. along a Regional Altitudinal Gradient in Northern {{Sweden}}},
  author = {Holm, Stig-Olov},
  date = {1994-03},
  journaltitle = {Ecography},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {60--72},
  issn = {0906-7590},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1600-0587.1994.tb00077.x},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.1994.tb00077.x},
  abstract = {The Scandinavian birches have different distribution patterns Betula pendula reaches its upper tree limit at the bottom of the valleys in the Scandes, while B pubescens ssp pubescens extends above the B pendula limit, and merges into B pubescens ssp tortuosa at higher elevations In a 6 yr study I quantified the spatial and temporal variation in the reproduction of these species along a regional altitudinal gradient Betula pendula showed a steeper altitudinal decrease of seed germinability and seed germination rate than B pubescens coll Seed weight was strongly and positively correlated with altitude for B pubescens, but not for B pendula The proportion of seeds infected by gall midges Semudobia coll, was much higher in B pendula than in B pubescens coll especially in the mountain area All birch taxa showed large annual variations in quantity and quality of seeds The sapling density was higher in B pubescens ssp pubescens stands than in B pendula and B pubescens ssp tortuosa stands in the mountains The vegetative reproduction was about three times higher for B pubescens ssp tortuosa, than for the other two birches These results indicate that the altitudinal variation in reproduction among the birch taxa mirror their present distribution patterns},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13514365,~to-add-doi-URL,betula-pendula,betula-pubescens,ecology,sweden},
  number = {1}
}
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