Observations of open-ocean deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea: Seasonal and interannual variability of mixing and deep water masses for the 2007-2013 Period. Houpert, L., Durrieu de Madron, X., Testor, P., Bosse, A., D'Ortenzio, F., Bouin, M. N., Dausse, D., Le Goff, H., Kunesch, S., Labaste, M., Coppola, L., Mortier, L., & Raimbault, P. 121(11):8139–8171. Number: 11
Observations of open-ocean deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea: Seasonal and interannual variability of mixing and deep water masses for the 2007-2013 Period [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Abstract We present here a unique oceanographic and meteorological data set focus on the deep convection processes. Our results are essentially based on in situ data (mooring, research vessel, glider, and profiling float) collected from a multiplatform and integrated monitoring system (MOOSE: Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment), which monitored continuously the northwestern Mediterranean Sea since 2007, and in particular high-frequency potential temperature, salinity, and current measurements from the mooring LION located within the convection region. From 2009 to 2013, the mixed layer depth reaches the seabed, at a depth of 2330m, in February. Then, the violent vertical mixing of the whole water column lasts between 9 and 12 days setting up the characteristics of the newly formed deep water. Each deep convection winter formed a new warmer and saltier ?vintage? of deep water. These sudden inputs of salt and heat in the deep ocean are responsible for trends in salinity (3.3?±?0.2 ? 10?3/yr) and potential temperature (3.2?±?0.5 ? 10?3 C/yr) observed from 2009 to 2013 for the 600?2300 m layer. For the first time, the overlapping of the three ?phases? of deep convection can be observed, with secondary vertical mixing events (2?4 days) after the beginning of the restratification phase, and the restratification/spreading phase still active at the beginning of the following deep convection event.
@article{houpert_observations_2016,
	title = {Observations of open-ocean deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea: Seasonal and interannual variability of mixing and deep water masses for the 2007-2013 Period},
	volume = {121},
	issn = {2169-9275},
	url = {https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/2016JC011857},
	doi = {10.1002/2016JC011857},
	shorttitle = {Observations of open-ocean deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea},
	abstract = {Abstract We present here a unique oceanographic and meteorological data set focus on the deep convection processes. Our results are essentially based on in situ data (mooring, research vessel, glider, and profiling float) collected from a multiplatform and integrated monitoring system ({MOOSE}: Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment), which monitored continuously the northwestern Mediterranean Sea since 2007, and in particular high-frequency potential temperature, salinity, and current measurements from the mooring {LION} located within the convection region. From 2009 to 2013, the mixed layer depth reaches the seabed, at a depth of 2330m, in February. Then, the violent vertical mixing of the whole water column lasts between 9 and 12 days setting up the characteristics of the newly formed deep water. Each deep convection winter formed a new warmer and saltier ?vintage? of deep water. These sudden inputs of salt and heat in the deep ocean are responsible for trends in salinity (3.3?±?0.2 ? 10?3/yr) and potential temperature (3.2?±?0.5 ? 10?3 C/yr) observed from 2009 to 2013 for the 600?2300 m layer. For the first time, the overlapping of the three ?phases? of deep convection can be observed, with secondary vertical mixing events (2?4 days) after the beginning of the restratification phase, and the restratification/spreading phase still active at the beginning of the following deep convection event.},
	pages = {8139--8171},
	number = {11},
	journaltitle = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans},
	shortjournal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans},
	author = {Houpert, L. and Durrieu de Madron, X. and Testor, P. and Bosse, A. and D'Ortenzio, F. and Bouin, M. N. and Dausse, D. and Le Goff, H. and Kunesch, S. and Labaste, M. and Coppola, L. and Mortier, L. and Raimbault, P.},
	urldate = {2019-04-15},
	date = {2016-11-01},
	note = {Number: 11},
	keywords = {Mediterranean Sea, dense water formation, mixed layer, deep water, gulf of lions, ocean observations, open-ocean deep convection, physical oceanography}
}
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