Ecology and Management of Exotic and Endemic Asian Longhorned Beetle Anoplophora Glabripennis. Hu, J., Angeli, S., Schuetz, S., Luo, Y., & Hajek, A. E. 11(4):359–375.
Ecology and Management of Exotic and Endemic Asian Longhorned Beetle Anoplophora Glabripennis [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
[\n] The Asian longhorned beetle is native to China and Korea, and was found for the first time outside its native habitat in the U.S.A. in 1996, with subsequent detections being made in Canada and several European countries. [\n] We review the taxonomy, distribution, basic biology, behaviour, ecology and management of endemic and exotic Anoplophora glabripennis, including information that is available in the extensive Chinese literature. [\n] This species has caused massive mortality of Populus species in China and models have demonstrated that it could become established in many locations worldwide. [\n] Anoplophora glabripennis is polyphagous but prefers Acer, Salix and Populus, section Aigeiros. [\n] Although A. glabripennis adults do not disperse far when surrounded by host trees, they have the potential to fly more than 2000 m in a season. [\n] Volatile organic compounds from preferred host trees are attractive to A. glabripennis and this attraction is heightened by drought stress. Males and females orientate to a volatile released by female A. glabripennis and males attempt to copulate after contacting a sex pheromone on the female cuticle. [\n] At present, A. glabripennis is being (or has been) eradicated from areas where it has been introduced. After detection, extensive surveys are conducted and, if breeding populations are detected, at the very least, infested trees are removed and destroyed. Close attention is paid to imported solid wood packaging material to prevent new introductions. [\n] Standard practice to control A. glabripennis in China is to spray insecticides in tree canopies. In North America, largely as a preventative measure, systemic insecticides are injected into trees. Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed for the control of A. glabripennis, and entomopathogenic nematodes, coleopteran and hymenopteran parasitoids and predatory woodpeckers have been investigated as biocontrol agents. [\n] Ecological control of A. glabripennis in China involves planting mixtures of preferred and nonpreferred tree species, and this practice can successfully prevent outbreaks [Excerpt: Host species] The major economic damage due to A. glabripennis reported globally is to poplars (Populus), maples (Acer), willows (Salix) and elms (Ulmus) (Sawyer, 2003; Haack et al., 2006). [\n] In China, A. glabripennis has caused the greatest damage to poplar species. [...] [\n] Although A. glabripennis has caused vast economic damage to specific types of poplars in China, this species is very polyphagous. An extensive investigation of the different tree species attacked by A. glabripennis was conducted in the north-western Chinese region of Yinchuan, Ningxia Province. Anoplophora glabripennis was found to damage 34 tree species (excluding economic fruit tree species such as Malus spp. and Pyrus spp.) belonging to 14 genera in ten different families, as Acer, Betula, Elaeagnus, Fraxinus, Hedysarum, Hippophae, Koelreuteria, Platanus, Populus, Robinia, Salix, Sophora, Tilia and Ulmus (Li et al., 1999a). However, it was not reported whether A. glabripennis is able to complete its development on all of these species. To measure susceptibility or resistance of trees to A. glabripennis, a field trial was conducted using 138 tree species (Gao et al., 1997b); Acer was the most attractive genus, followed by several Populus species, such as P.×dakuanensis, Populus simonii Carr., Populus cathayana Rehd. and Populus pseudo-simonii Kitag. [...] [\n] In North America, A. glabripennis has been reported to attack 18 deciduous tree species belonging to 12 genera. The more attractive included Acer negundo (L.), A. platanoides, Aesculus spp., Betula spp., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Marsh.) (Haack et al., 1997; Lingafelter & Hoebeke, 2002). Acer saccharum (Marsh.) was preferred for oviposition in one laboratory study (Morewood et al., 2003) but A. glabripennis preferred the North American understory striped maple, Acer pensylvanicum L. over A. saccharum (Hajek & Kalb, 2007). In the U.S.A. and Canada, maples are of great concern because they are very common in northeastern forests and are widely planted along city streets and in parks. [...] [\n] It was found that A. glabripennis has different host suitability when comparing Chinese and North American forests. The host suitability index was higher for Populus and Salix compared with Ulmus in China, and generally higher for Acer and Ulmus than Fraxinus in North America (data from Chicago). Therefore, Acer and Ulmus are considered to be the main host trees in the U.S.A., although, in decreasing order, Fraxinus, Aesculus, Betula, Salix, Celtis, Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus and Tilia were also attacked (Haack et al., 2006). [...]
@article{huEcologyManagementExotic2009,
  title = {Ecology and Management of Exotic and Endemic {{Asian}} Longhorned Beetle {{Anoplophora}} Glabripennis},
  author = {Hu, Jiafu and Angeli, Sergio and Schuetz, Stefan and Luo, Youqing and Hajek, Ann E.},
  date = {2009-11},
  journaltitle = {Agricultural and Forest Entomology},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {359--375},
  issn = {1461-9555},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1461-9563.2009.00443.x},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-9563.2009.00443.x},
  abstract = {[\textbackslash n] The Asian longhorned beetle is native to China and Korea, and was found for the first time outside its native habitat in the U.S.A. in 1996, with subsequent detections being made in Canada and several European countries.

[\textbackslash n] We review the taxonomy, distribution, basic biology, behaviour, ecology and management of endemic and exotic Anoplophora glabripennis, including information that is available in the extensive Chinese literature.

[\textbackslash n] This species has caused massive mortality of Populus species in China and models have demonstrated that it could become established in many locations worldwide.

[\textbackslash n] Anoplophora glabripennis is polyphagous but prefers Acer, Salix and Populus, section Aigeiros.

[\textbackslash n] Although A. glabripennis adults do not disperse far when surrounded by host trees, they have the potential to fly more than 2000 m in a season.

[\textbackslash n] Volatile organic compounds from preferred host trees are attractive to A. glabripennis and this attraction is heightened by drought stress. Males and females orientate to a volatile released by female A. glabripennis and males attempt to copulate after contacting a sex pheromone on the female cuticle.

[\textbackslash n] At present, A. glabripennis is being (or has been) eradicated from areas where it has been introduced. After detection, extensive surveys are conducted and, if breeding populations are detected, at the very least, infested trees are removed and destroyed. Close attention is paid to imported solid wood packaging material to prevent new introductions.

[\textbackslash n] Standard practice to control A. glabripennis in China is to spray insecticides in tree canopies. In North America, largely as a preventative measure, systemic insecticides are injected into trees. Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed for the control of A. glabripennis, and entomopathogenic nematodes, coleopteran and hymenopteran parasitoids and predatory woodpeckers have been investigated as biocontrol agents.

[\textbackslash n] Ecological control of A. glabripennis in China involves planting mixtures of preferred and nonpreferred tree species, and this practice can successfully prevent outbreaks

[Excerpt: Host species] The major economic damage due to A. glabripennis reported globally is to poplars (Populus), maples (Acer), willows (Salix) and elms (Ulmus) (Sawyer, 2003; Haack et al., 2006). 

[\textbackslash n] In China, A. glabripennis has caused the greatest damage to poplar species. [...]

[\textbackslash n] Although A. glabripennis has caused vast economic damage to specific types of poplars in China, this species is very polyphagous. An extensive investigation of the different tree species attacked by A. glabripennis was conducted in the north-western Chinese region of Yinchuan, Ningxia Province. Anoplophora glabripennis was found to damage 34 tree species (excluding economic fruit tree species such as Malus spp. and Pyrus spp.) belonging to 14 genera in ten different families, as Acer, Betula, Elaeagnus, Fraxinus, Hedysarum, Hippophae, Koelreuteria, Platanus, Populus, Robinia, Salix, Sophora, Tilia and Ulmus (Li et al., 1999a). However, it was not reported whether A. glabripennis is able to complete its development on all of these species. To measure susceptibility or resistance of trees to A. glabripennis, a field trial was conducted using 138 tree species (Gao et al., 1997b); Acer was the most attractive genus, followed by several Populus species, such as P.×dakuanensis, Populus simonii Carr., Populus cathayana Rehd. and Populus pseudo-simonii Kitag. [...]

[\textbackslash n] In North America, A. glabripennis has been reported to attack 18 deciduous tree species belonging to 12 genera. The more attractive included Acer negundo (L.), A. platanoides, Aesculus spp., Betula spp., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Marsh.) (Haack et al., 1997; Lingafelter \& Hoebeke, 2002). Acer saccharum (Marsh.) was preferred for oviposition in one laboratory study (Morewood et al., 2003) but A. glabripennis preferred the North American understory striped maple, Acer pensylvanicum L. over A. saccharum (Hajek \& Kalb, 2007). In the U.S.A. and Canada, maples are of great concern because they are very common in northeastern forests and are widely planted along city streets and in parks. [...]

[\textbackslash n] It was found that A. glabripennis has different host suitability when comparing Chinese and North American forests. The host suitability index was higher for Populus and Salix compared with Ulmus in China, and generally higher for Acer and Ulmus than Fraxinus in North America (data from Chicago). Therefore, Acer and Ulmus are considered to be the main host trees in the U.S.A., although, in decreasing order, Fraxinus, Aesculus, Betula, Salix, Celtis, Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus and Tilia were also attacked (Haack et al., 2006). [...]},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-6005742,acer-spp,anoplophora-glabripennis,forest-pests,forest-resources,populus-spp,salix-spp,ulmus-spp},
  number = {4}
}
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