Dependence of release variables in the shot put. Hubbard, M., de Mestre, N. J, & Scott, J. Journal of Biomechanics, 2001.
abstract   bibtex   
When the shot is released above a horizontal plane, range from this point depends on release height, speed and angle. Measured distance is the sum of this range and horizontal distance of the release point from the throwing circle edge. Optimal release conditions can be calculated only if the dependence of release velocity on other variables, due to thrower limitations, is known. Experiments on two shot-putters investigated the hypothesis that there are constraint relationships among these four release parameters. A variable scaling scheme, using measurement of impact point and the known magnitude of g, corrected 2D data from one camera for out-of-plane motion and yielded accurate estimates of release parameters. Multivariate regression analyses determined approximate constraint surfaces limiting performance. Achievable release speed decreases with increasing release angle at about 1.7 (m/s)/rad and decreases with increasing release height at about 0.8 (m/s)/m, with only small differences in sensitivities between the throwers. Horizontal release distance also decreases with increasing release angle at about 1.7 m/rad and increases with increasing release height at about 1.3 m/m, again with only small differences between the two throwers. Optimal release conditions producing maximum range for a particular athlete can be determined using similar constraints for that athlete. # 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
@article{hubbard_dependence_2001,
	title = {Dependence of release variables in the shot put},
	abstract = {When the shot is released above a horizontal plane, range from this point depends on release height, speed and angle. Measured distance is the sum of this range and horizontal distance of the release point from the throwing circle edge. Optimal release conditions can be calculated only if the dependence of release velocity on other variables, due to thrower limitations, is known. Experiments on two shot-putters investigated the hypothesis that there are constraint relationships among these four release parameters. A variable scaling scheme, using measurement of impact point and the known magnitude of g, corrected 2D data from one camera for out-of-plane motion and yielded accurate estimates of release parameters. Multivariate regression analyses determined approximate constraint surfaces limiting performance. Achievable release speed decreases with increasing release angle at about 1.7 (m/s)/rad and decreases with increasing release height at about 0.8 (m/s)/m, with only small differences in sensitivities between the throwers. Horizontal release distance also decreases with increasing release angle at about 1.7 m/rad and increases with increasing release height at about 1.3 m/m, again with only small differences between the two throwers. Optimal release conditions producing maximum range for a particular athlete can be determined using similar constraints for that athlete. \# 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.},
	language = {en},
	journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
	author = {Hubbard, Mont and de Mestre, Neville J and Scott, John},
	year = {2001},
	pages = {8}
}
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