Assessment of characteristic distribution of PCDD/Fs and BFRs in sludge generated at municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants. Hwang, I., Kang, H., Lee, I., & Oh, J. Chemosphere, 88(7):888--894, August, 2012.
Assessment of characteristic distribution of PCDD/Fs and BFRs in sludge generated at municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants. [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
The presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furan (PCDD/Fs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in sludge generated at municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) and industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTPs) was investigated. The concentrations of these pollutants were in the following ranges: 5.38-7947ngkg(-1)dw (0.02-49.9ngWHO-TEQkg(-1) dw) for 17 PCDD/Fs, 17.5-66761μgkg(-1)dw for 27 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 1.55-29604μgkg(-1)dw for hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) (α-, β-, and γ-diastereomers), and 4.01-618μgkg(-1)dw for tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Generally, the levels of each compound in the sewage-sludge samples were higher than those in the industrial-sludge samples with some exceptions. The characteristic distribution profiles of target compounds were observed for different types of sludge and different sources of wastewater. High-chlorinated PCDD/Fs were dominant in all samples except those from the textile industry. The distribution of the BFRs in industrial-sludge samples varied, whereas that of the BFRs in sewage-sludge samples was consistent. The proportion of penta-BDEs in sewage sludge was higher than that in industrial sludge, even though BDE-209 was the most dominant congener in all the samples. For HBCDs, the distribution of diastereomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD) was similar across sludge samples that had the same source of wastewater and treatment processes.
@article{hwang_assessment_2012,
	title = {Assessment of characteristic distribution of {PCDD}/{Fs} and {BFRs} in sludge generated at municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants.},
	volume = {88},
	url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22595527},
	abstract = {The presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furan (PCDD/Fs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in sludge generated at municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) and industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTPs) was investigated. The concentrations of these pollutants were in the following ranges: 5.38-7947ngkg(-1)dw (0.02-49.9ngWHO-TEQkg(-1) dw) for 17 PCDD/Fs, 17.5-66761μgkg(-1)dw for 27 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 1.55-29604μgkg(-1)dw for hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) (α-, β-, and γ-diastereomers), and 4.01-618μgkg(-1)dw for tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Generally, the levels of each compound in the sewage-sludge samples were higher than those in the industrial-sludge samples with some exceptions. The characteristic distribution profiles of target compounds were observed for different types of sludge and different sources of wastewater. High-chlorinated PCDD/Fs were dominant in all samples except those from the textile industry. The distribution of the BFRs in industrial-sludge samples varied, whereas that of the BFRs in sewage-sludge samples was consistent. The proportion of penta-BDEs in sewage sludge was higher than that in industrial sludge, even though BDE-209 was the most dominant congener in all the samples. For HBCDs, the distribution of diastereomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD) was similar across sludge samples that had the same source of wastewater and treatment processes.},
	number = {7},
	journal = {Chemosphere},
	author = {Hwang, In-Kyu and Kang, Hee-Hyung and Lee, In-Seok and Oh, Jeong-Eun},
	month = aug,
	year = {2012},
	keywords = {Flame retardants},
	pages = {888--894}
}

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