Enhancement of Macromolecular Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity by Exploiting Depletion Forces. Ishibe, T., Congdon, T., Stubbs, C., Hasan, M., Sosso, G. C., & Gibson, M. I. ACS Macro Lett., 8(8):1063–1067, August, 2019.
Enhancement of Macromolecular Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity by Exploiting Depletion Forces [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AF(G)Ps) are potent inhibitors of ice recrystallization and may have biotechnological applications. The most potent AF(G)Ps function at concentrations a thousand times lower than synthetic mimics such as poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA. Here, we demonstrate that PVA\textquoterights ice recrystallization activity can be rescued at concentrations where it does not normally function, by the addition of noninteracting polymeric depletants, due to PVA forming colloids in the concentrated saline environment present between ice crystals. These depletants shift the equilibrium toward ice binding and, hence, enable PVA to inhibit ice growth at lower concentrations. Using theory and experiments, we show this effect requires polymeric depletants, not small molecules, to enhance activity. These results increase our understanding of how to design new ice growth inhibitors, but also offer opportunities to enhance activity by exploiting depletion forces, without re-engineering ice-binding materials. It also shows that when screening for IRI activity that polymer contaminants in buffers may give rise to false positive results.
@article{ishibe_enhancement_2019,
	title = {Enhancement of {Macromolecular} {Ice} {Recrystallization} {Inhibition} {Activity} by {Exploiting} {Depletion} {Forces}},
	volume = {8},
	url = {https://doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.9b00386},
	doi = {10.1021/acsmacrolett.9b00386},
	abstract = {Antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AF(G)Ps) are potent inhibitors of ice recrystallization and may have biotechnological applications. The most potent AF(G)Ps function at concentrations a thousand times lower than synthetic mimics such as poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA. Here, we demonstrate that PVA{\textquoteright}s ice recrystallization activity can be rescued at concentrations where it does not normally function, by the addition of noninteracting polymeric depletants, due to PVA forming colloids in the concentrated saline environment present between ice crystals. These depletants shift the equilibrium toward ice binding and, hence, enable PVA to inhibit ice growth at lower concentrations. Using theory and experiments, we show this effect requires polymeric depletants, not small molecules, to enhance activity. These results increase our understanding of how to design new ice growth inhibitors, but also offer opportunities to enhance activity by exploiting depletion forces, without re-engineering ice-binding materials. It also shows that when screening for IRI activity that polymer contaminants in buffers may give rise to false positive results.},
	number = {8},
	urldate = {2020-02-06},
	journal = {ACS Macro Lett.},
	author = {Ishibe, Toru and Congdon, Thomas and Stubbs, Christopher and Hasan, Muhammad and Sosso, Gabriele C. and Gibson, Matthew I.},
	month = aug,
	year = {2019},
	pages = {1063--1067},
	file = {ACS Full Text Snapshot:/Users/wolf/Zotero/storage/PU8JSG2C/acsmacrolett.html:text/html;Full Text PDF:/Users/wolf/Zotero/storage/3S2X3PBB/Ishibe et al. - 2019 - Enhancement of Macromolecular Ice Recrystallizatio.pdf:application/pdf}
}

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