Vegetation, Environment, and Time: The Origination and Termination of Ecosystems. Jackson, S. T. 17(5):549–557.
Vegetation, Environment, and Time: The Origination and Termination of Ecosystems [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Terrestrial ecosystems originate when particular plant species attain dominance at specific locations under specific environmental regimes. Ecosystems terminate, gradually or abruptly, when the dominant species or functional types are replaced by others, usually owing to environmental change or severe and irreversible disturbance. Assessing whether current ecosystems are sustainable in the face of future environmental change can be aided by examining the range of environmental variation those ecosystems have experienced in the past, and by determining the environmental conditions under which those ecosystems arose. The range of environmental variation depends on the time scale at which it is assessed. A narrow time span (e.g. 200-300 years) may underestimate the range of variation within which an ecosystem is sustainable, and it may also underestimate the risk of major transformation or disruption of that ecosystem by environmental change. Longer time spans (e.g. 1000-2000 years) increase the range of variation, by encompassing a larger sample of natural variability as well as non-stationary variability in the earth system. Most modern ecosystems disappear when the time span is expanded to 10000-15 000 years owing to secular changes in earth's climate system. Paleo-ecological records can pinpoint the time of origination of specific ecosystems, and paleo-environmental records can reveal the specific environmental changes that led to development of those ecosystems and the range of environmental variation under which those ecosystems have maintained themselves in the past. This information can help identify critical environmental thresholds beyond which specific modern ecosystems can no longer be sustained.
@article{jacksonVegetationEnvironmentTime2006,
  title = {Vegetation, Environment, and Time: {{The}} Origination and Termination of Ecosystems},
  author = {Jackson, Stephen T.},
  date = {2006-10},
  journaltitle = {Journal of Vegetation Science},
  volume = {17},
  pages = {549--557},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1654-1103.2006.tb02478.x},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2006.tb02478.x},
  abstract = {Terrestrial ecosystems originate when particular plant species attain dominance at specific locations under specific environmental regimes. Ecosystems terminate, gradually or abruptly, when the dominant species or functional types are replaced by others, usually owing to environmental change or severe and irreversible disturbance. Assessing whether current ecosystems are sustainable in the face of future environmental change can be aided by examining the range of environmental variation those ecosystems have experienced in the past, and by determining the environmental conditions under which those ecosystems arose. The range of environmental variation depends on the time scale at which it is assessed. A narrow time span (e.g. 200-300 years) may underestimate the range of variation within which an ecosystem is sustainable, and it may also underestimate the risk of major transformation or disruption of that ecosystem by environmental change. Longer time spans (e.g. 1000-2000 years) increase the range of variation, by encompassing a larger sample of natural variability as well as non-stationary variability in the earth system. Most modern ecosystems disappear when the time span is expanded to 10000-15 000 years owing to secular changes in earth's climate system. Paleo-ecological records can pinpoint the time of origination of specific ecosystems, and paleo-environmental records can reveal the specific environmental changes that led to development of those ecosystems and the range of environmental variation under which those ecosystems have maintained themselves in the past. This information can help identify critical environmental thresholds beyond which specific modern ecosystems can no longer be sustained.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13774170,climate,ecosystem,plant-species,vegetation},
  number = {5}
}
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