Ferroelectricity in Strain-Free SrTiO3 Thin Films. Jang, H. W., Kumar, A., Denev, S., Biegalski, M. D., Maksymovych, P., Bark, C. W., Nelson, C. T., Folkman, C. M., Baek, S. H., Balke, N., Brooks, C. M., Tenne, D. A., Schlom, D. G., Chen, L. Q., Pan, X. Q., Kalinin, S. V., Gopalan, V., & Eom, C. B. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, MAY 14, 2010.
doi  abstract   bibtex   
Biaxial strain is known to induce ferroelectricity in thin films of nominally nonferroelectric materials such as SrTiO3. By a direct comparison of the strained and strain-free SrTiO3 films using dielectric, ferroelectric, Raman, nonlinear optical and nanoscale piezoelectric property measurements, we conclude that all SrTiO3 films and bulk crystals are relaxor ferroelectrics, and the role of strain is to stabilize longerrange correlation of preexisting nanopolar regions, likely originating from minute amounts of unintentional Sr deficiency in nominally stoichiometric samples. These findings highlight the sensitive role of stoichiometry when exploring strain and epitaxy-induced electronic phenomena in oxide films, heterostructures, and interfaces.
@article{ ISI:000277699600052,
Author = {Jang, H. W. and Kumar, A. and Denev, S. and Biegalski, M. D. and
   Maksymovych, P. and Bark, C. W. and Nelson, C. T. and Folkman, C. M. and
   Baek, S. H. and Balke, N. and Brooks, C. M. and Tenne, D. A. and Schlom,
   D. G. and Chen, L. Q. and Pan, X. Q. and Kalinin, S. V. and Gopalan, V.
   and Eom, C. B.},
Title = {{Ferroelectricity in Strain-Free SrTiO3 Thin Films}},
Journal = {{PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS}},
Year = {{2010}},
Volume = {{104}},
Number = {{19}},
Month = {{MAY 14}},
Abstract = {{Biaxial strain is known to induce ferroelectricity in thin films of
   nominally nonferroelectric materials such as SrTiO3. By a direct
   comparison of the strained and strain-free SrTiO3 films using
   dielectric, ferroelectric, Raman, nonlinear optical and nanoscale
   piezoelectric property measurements, we conclude that all SrTiO3 films
   and bulk crystals are relaxor ferroelectrics, and the role of strain is
   to stabilize longerrange correlation of preexisting nanopolar regions,
   likely originating from minute amounts of unintentional Sr deficiency in
   nominally stoichiometric samples. These findings highlight the sensitive
   role of stoichiometry when exploring strain and epitaxy-induced
   electronic phenomena in oxide films, heterostructures, and interfaces.}},
DOI = {{10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.197601}},
Article-Number = {{197601}},
ISSN = {{0031-9007}},
EISSN = {{1079-7114}},
ResearcherID-Numbers = {{Tenne, Dmitri/C-3294-2009
   Eom, Chang-Beom/I-5567-2014
   Chen, LongQing/I-7536-2012
   Balke, Nina/Q-2505-2015
   Jang, Ho Won/D-9866-2011
   Kalinin, Sergei/I-9096-2012
   Baek, Seung-Hyub/B-9189-2013
   Kumar, Amit/C-9662-2012
   Bark, Chung Wung/B-9534-2014
   Schlom, Darrell/J-2412-2013
   Maksymovych, Petro/C-3922-2016}},
ORCID-Numbers = {{Tenne, Dmitri/0000-0003-2697-8958
   Chen, LongQing/0000-0003-3359-3781
   Balke, Nina/0000-0001-5865-5892
   Jang, Ho Won/0000-0002-6952-7359
   Kalinin, Sergei/0000-0001-5354-6152
   Kumar, Amit/0000-0002-1194-5531
   Bark, Chung Wung/0000-0002-9394-4240
   Schlom, Darrell/0000-0003-2493-6113
   Maksymovych, Petro/0000-0003-0822-8459}},
Unique-ID = {{ISI:000277699600052}},
}
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