A novel paradigm reveals the role of reentrant visual processes in object substitution masking. Jannati, A., Spalek, T. M., Lollo, & Di, V. Attention, Perception, \& Psychophysics.
A novel paradigm reveals the role of reentrant visual processes in object substitution masking [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Object substitution masking (OSM) occurs when an initial display of a target and mask continues with the mask alone, creating a mismatch between the reentrant hypothesis, triggered by the initial display, and the ongoing low-level activity. We tested the proposition that the critical factor in OSM is not whether the mask remains in view after target offset, but whether the representation of the mask is sufficiently stronger than that of the target when the reentrant signal arrives. In Experiment 1, a variable interstimulus interval (ISI) was inserted between the initial display and the mask alone. The trailing mask was presumed to selectively boost the strength of the mask representation relative to that of the target. As predicted, OSM occurred at intermediate ISIs, at which the mask was presented before the arrival of the reentrant signal, creating a mismatch, but not at long ISIs, at which a comparison between the reentrant signal and the low-level activity had already been made. Experiment 2, conducted in dark-adapted viewing, ruled out the possibility that low-level inhibitory contour interactions (metacontrast masking) had played a significant role in Experiment 1. Metacontrast masking was further ruled out in Experiment 3, in which the masking contours were reduced to four small dots. We concluded that OSM does not depend on extended presentation of the mask alone, but on a mismatch between the reentrant signals and the ongoing activity at the lower level. The present results place constraints on estimates of the timing of reentrant signals involved in OSM.
@article{ jannati_novel_????,
  title = {A novel paradigm reveals the role of reentrant visual processes in object substitution masking},
  issn = {1943-3921, 1943-{393X}},
  url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13414-013-0462-9},
  doi = {10.3758/s13414-013-0462-9},
  abstract = {Object substitution masking ({OSM)} occurs when an initial display of a target and mask continues with the mask alone, creating a mismatch between the reentrant hypothesis, triggered by the initial display, and the ongoing low-level activity. We tested the proposition that the critical factor in {OSM} is not whether the mask remains in view after target offset, but whether the representation of the mask is sufficiently stronger than that of the target when the reentrant signal arrives. In Experiment 1, a variable interstimulus interval ({ISI)} was inserted between the initial display and the mask alone. The trailing mask was presumed to selectively boost the strength of the mask representation relative to that of the target. As predicted, {OSM} occurred at intermediate {ISIs}, at which the mask was presented before the arrival of the reentrant signal, creating a mismatch, but not at long {ISIs}, at which a comparison between the reentrant signal and the low-level activity had already been made. Experiment 2, conducted in dark-adapted viewing, ruled out the possibility that low-level inhibitory contour interactions (metacontrast masking) had played a significant role in Experiment 1. Metacontrast masking was further ruled out in Experiment 3, in which the masking contours were reduced to four small dots. We concluded that {OSM} does not depend on extended presentation of the mask alone, but on a mismatch between the reentrant signals and the ongoing activity at the lower level. The present results place constraints on estimates of the timing of reentrant signals involved in {OSM.}},
  language = {en},
  urldate = {2013-05-17},
  journal = {Attention, Perception, \& Psychophysics},
  author = {Jannati, Ali and Spalek, Thomas M. and Lollo, Vincent Di},
  keywords = {Cognitive Psychology, Common-onset masking, Metacontrast masking, Object substitution masking, Reentrant processing, Visual search},
  pages = {1--10}
}
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