Norway Spruce (Picea Abies (L.) H.Karst.). Jansson, G., Danusevičius, D., Grotehusman, H., Kowalczyk, J., Krajmerova, D., Skrøppa, T., & Wolf, H. In Forest Tree Breeding in Europe, volume 25, of Managing Forest Ecosystems, pages 123–176. Springer Netherlands.
Norway Spruce (Picea Abies (L.) H.Karst.) [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is one of the most important coniferous species in Europe both from an economic and ecological point of view. Solid wood products and pulp and paper products have the largest economic value. The patterns of variation observed in Norway spruce provenance trials show geographic variability on a large scale. Genetic variation is also present among offspring from natural populations within the same provenance region and among progenies from trees in the same population. This variation can often be larger than the variability among provenances. Tree improvement of Norway spruce started in Europe in the late 1940s. Breeding programmes were initiated in nearly all European countries but with different intensities. A common objective has been to create base material for seed procurement. Breeding objectives differ between countries, but most of them include adaptation and health, volume production and wood quality in some way. Genetic gains in volume per area unit from first round of seed orchards is around 10 % and from new seed orchards established with tested material expected to be between 20 and 25 %.
@incollection{janssonNorwaySprucePicea2013,
  title = {Norway {{Spruce}} ({{Picea}} Abies ({{L}}.) {{H}}.{{Karst}}.)},
  booktitle = {Forest {{Tree Breeding}} in {{Europe}}},
  author = {Jansson, Gunnar and Danusevičius, Darius and Grotehusman, Helmut and Kowalczyk, Jan and Krajmerova, Diana and Skrøppa, Tore and Wolf, Heino},
  editor = {Pâques, Luc E.},
  date = {2013},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {123--176},
  publisher = {{Springer Netherlands}},
  doi = {10.1007/978-94-007-6146-9\\_3},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6146-9_3},
  abstract = {Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is one of the most important coniferous species in Europe both from an economic and ecological point of view. Solid wood products and pulp and paper products have the largest economic value. The patterns of variation observed in Norway spruce provenance trials show geographic variability on a large scale. Genetic variation is also present among offspring from natural populations within the same provenance region and among progenies from trees in the same population. This variation can often be larger than the variability among provenances. Tree improvement of Norway spruce started in Europe in the late 1940s. Breeding programmes were initiated in nearly all European countries but with different intensities. A common objective has been to create base material for seed procurement. Breeding objectives differ between countries, but most of them include adaptation and health, volume production and wood quality in some way. Genetic gains in volume per area unit from first round of seed orchards is around 10 \% and from new seed orchards established with tested material expected to be between 20 and 25 \%.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-12784638,botany,ecology,forest-resources,picea-abies},
  series = {Managing {{Forest Ecosystems}}}
}
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