Pest Categorisation of Gilpinia Hercyniae. Jeger, M., Bragard, C., Caffier, D., Candresse, T., Chatzivassiliou, E., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Gilioli, G., Jaques Miret, J. A., MacLeod, A., Navajas Navarro, M., Niere, B., Parnell, S., Potting, R., Rafoss, T., Rossi, V., Urek, G., Van Bruggen, A., Van der Werf, W., West, J., Winter, S., Battisti, A., Kertész, V., Aukhojee, M., & Grégoire, J. 15(12):e05108+.
Pest Categorisation of Gilpinia Hercyniae [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the Diprionid sawfly, Gilpinia hercyniae Hartig (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae), for the EU. G. hercyniae is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe but also present in North America, Japan, Mongolia, Korea and Pakistan, and recognised as a pest of spruce (Picea spp.). The pest is distributed in 19 Member States (MSs) of the EU. It is a quarantine pest listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in place in Greece, Ireland and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland, Isle of Man and Jersey). Plants for planting of Picea spp. and soil and litter associated with Picea spp. are considered as pathways for this pest, which is also able to disperse by flight. The prepupae overwinter inside cocoons in the litter or in the foliage. In spring, the adults, mostly females emerge and lay 35-60 eggs per female in mature needles. The larvae feed on the mature needles through five instars. There are 1-3 generations per year; some of the prepupae undergo prolonged diapause for more than 1 year. The impact on Picea abies (= excelsa) is minimal, because only the needles of the previous years are attacked; however, outbreaks have occurred on non-native spruce, Picea glauca and Picea sitchensis. The pest is controlled everywhere by natural enemies, including nuclear polyedrosis viruses. The insects spread on plants for planting of Picea spp., with soil and litter associated with Picea spp., and by flight. The EU protected zones have a similar climate and similar host plants as the MS where G. hercyniae is established. All criteria assessed by EFSA for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest and as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest were met. [Excerpt: Conclusions] [...] [::Identity of the pest] The identity of the pest is established. Adults can be identified at species level using conventional entomological keys. [...] [::Absence/presence of the pest in the EU territory] The pest has been reported from 19 EU-MS. [...] [::Regulatory status] Greece, Ireland and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland, Isle of Man and Jersey) are protected zones with respect to G. hercyniae. The pest is regulated on plants for planting other than seeds of the genus Picea. [...] [::Pest potential for entry, establishment and spread in the EU territory] The pest can enter the protected zones by human-assisted spread or by natural spread from EU areas where the pest is present. [...] [] The main pathways of spread are plants for planting of Picea spp. and soil and litter associated with Picea spp. [...] [::Potential for consequences in the EU territory] Impact would be minimal if the native Picea abies is attacked, because only the needles from the previous years are consumed by the larvae. Moreover, the pest is regularly controlled by natural enemies, including nuclear polyedrosis viruses. However, outbreaks have occurred on non-native spruce, P. glauca and P. sitchensis. [...] [] The presence of the pest on plants for planting could have an economic impact, most likely transient (until natural enemies would regulate pest populations), in protected zones where plants are mainly used in forest plantations, especially in the case of Sitka spruce (Picea sitkensis). [...] [] In relation to the RNQP status, the acceptable level of impact for forest nurseries cannot be judged by EFSA. [...] [::Available measures] The material to be used in the protected zones has to be produced in pest-free areas or in nursery conditions that allow pest exclusion. Eradication does not appear justified, because of the low impact on P. abies, and the control by local natural enemies observed everywhere. [...] [] Trees could be produced in screened glasshouses in areas where the pest is present. [...] [] Screened glasshouses do not seem very realistic for forest nurseries. [...] [::Conclusion on pest categorisation] All criteria assessed above by EFSA for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest were met. [...] [] All criteria assessed by EFSA above for consideration as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest were met. [...] [::Aspects of assessment to focus on/scenarios to address in future if appropriate] No further assessment or scenario to address. [...]
@article{jegerPestCategorisationGilpinia2017,
  title = {Pest Categorisation of {{Gilpinia}} Hercyniae},
  author = {Jeger, Michael and Bragard, Claude and Caffier, David and Candresse, Thierry and Chatzivassiliou, Elisavet and Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina and Gilioli, Gianni and Jaques Miret, Josep A. and MacLeod, Alan and Navajas Navarro, Maria and Niere, Björn and Parnell, Stephen and Potting, Roel and Rafoss, Trond and Rossi, Vittorio and Urek, Gregor and Van Bruggen, Ariena and Van der Werf, Wopke and West, Jonathan and Winter, Stephan and Battisti, Andrea and Kertész, Virág and Aukhojee, Mitesha and Grégoire, Jean-Claude},
  date = {2017-12},
  journaltitle = {EFSA Journal},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {e05108+},
  issn = {1831-4732},
  doi = {10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5108},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5108},
  abstract = {The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the Diprionid sawfly, Gilpinia hercyniae Hartig (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae), for the EU. G. hercyniae is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe but also present in North America, Japan, Mongolia, Korea and Pakistan, and recognised as a pest of spruce (Picea spp.). The pest is distributed in 19 Member States (MSs) of the EU. It is a quarantine pest listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in place in Greece, Ireland and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland, Isle of Man and Jersey). Plants for planting of Picea spp. and soil and litter associated with Picea spp. are considered as pathways for this pest, which is also able to disperse by flight. The prepupae overwinter inside cocoons in the litter or in the foliage. In spring, the adults, mostly females emerge and lay 35-60 eggs per female in mature needles. The larvae feed on the mature needles through five instars. There are 1-3 generations per year; some of the prepupae undergo prolonged diapause for more than 1 year. The impact on Picea abies (= excelsa) is minimal, because only the needles of the previous years are attacked; however, outbreaks have occurred on non-native spruce, Picea glauca and Picea sitchensis. The pest is controlled everywhere by natural enemies, including nuclear polyedrosis viruses. The insects spread on plants for planting of Picea spp., with soil and litter associated with Picea spp., and by flight. The EU protected zones have a similar climate and similar host plants as the MS where G. hercyniae is established. All criteria assessed by EFSA for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest and as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest were met.

[Excerpt: Conclusions] [...] [::Identity of the pest] The identity of the pest is established. Adults can be identified at species level using conventional entomological keys. [...]

[::Absence/presence of the pest in the EU territory] The pest has been reported from 19 EU-MS. [...]

[::Regulatory status] Greece, Ireland and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland, Isle of Man and Jersey) are protected zones with respect to G. hercyniae. The pest is regulated on plants for planting other than seeds of the genus Picea. [...]

[::Pest potential for entry, establishment and spread in the EU territory] The pest can enter the protected zones by human-assisted spread or by natural spread from EU areas where the pest is present. [...]

[] The main pathways of spread are plants for planting of Picea spp. and soil and litter associated with Picea spp. [...]

[::Potential for consequences in the EU territory] Impact would be minimal if the native Picea abies is attacked, because only the needles from the previous years are consumed by the larvae. Moreover, the pest is regularly controlled by natural enemies, including nuclear polyedrosis viruses. However, outbreaks have occurred on non-native spruce, P. glauca and P. sitchensis. [...]

[] The presence of the pest on plants for planting could have an economic impact, most likely transient (until natural enemies would regulate pest populations), in protected zones where plants are mainly used in forest plantations, especially in the case of Sitka spruce (Picea sitkensis). [...]

[] In relation to the RNQP status, the acceptable level of impact for forest nurseries cannot be judged by EFSA. [...]

[::Available measures] The material to be used in the protected zones has to be produced in pest-free areas or in nursery conditions that allow pest exclusion.

Eradication does not appear justified, because of the low impact on P. abies, and the control by local natural enemies observed everywhere. [...]

[] Trees could be produced in screened glasshouses in areas where the pest is present. [...]

[] Screened glasshouses do not seem very realistic for forest nurseries. [...]

[::Conclusion on pest categorisation] All criteria assessed above by EFSA for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest were met. [...] [] All criteria assessed by EFSA above for consideration as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest were met. [...]

[::Aspects of assessment to focus on/scenarios to address in future if appropriate] No further assessment or scenario to address. [...]},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-14506392,~to-add-doi-URL,disturbances,efsa,efsa-scientific-opinion,europe,forest-pests,gilpinia-hercyniae,picea-glauca,picea-sitchensis,picea-spp,plant-pests},
  number = {12}
}
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