Pest Categorisation of Ips Cembrae. Jeger, M., Bragard, C., Caffier, D., Candresse, T., Chatzivassiliou, E., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Gilioli, G., Jaques Miret, J. A., MacLeod, A., Navajas Navarro, M., Niere, B., Parnell, S., Potting, R., Rafoss, T., Rossi, V., Urek, G., Van Bruggen, A., Van der Werf, W., West, J., Winter, S., Kertész, V., Aukhojee, M., & Grégoire, J. 15(11):e05039+.
Pest Categorisation of Ips Cembrae [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the large larch bark beetle, Ips cembrae (Heer) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. cembrae is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe and recognised mainly as a pest of larch (Larix spp.) and occasionally of pine (Pinus spp.) and spruce (Picea spp.). It is distributed in 16 Member States of the EU and listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in place in Greece, Ireland and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland and Isle of Man). Wood, wood products, bark and wood packaging material are considered as pathways for this pest, which is also able to disperse by flight. The insects normally establish on fallen or weakened trees but, when their populations are high, can also mass-attack healthy trees. The males produce aggregation pheromones that attract conspecifics of both sexes. The insects also inoculate pathogenic fungi to their hosts. There are one to two generations per year. Before establishing their broods, the young adults need to proceed to maturation feeding either within the bark of the tree where they developed or in 2-18 years old twigs. I. cembrae has been expanding its geographical range in Europe during the second half of the 20th century. Sanitary thinning or clear felling is the major control methods. Quarantine measures are implemented to prevent entry in the protected zones. All criteria for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest are met. The criteria for considering I. cembrae as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest are not met since plants for planting are not viewed as a major pathway. [Excerpt: Conclusions] [...] [::Identity of the pest] The identity of the pest is established. It can be identified to the species level using conventional entomological keys and molecular methods. [...] [::Absence/presence of the pest in the EU territory] Ips cembrae is present and widely distributed in the EU, it has been reported from 16 MSs. It is a Protected Zone quarantine pest in Greece, Ireland and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland and Isle of Man) (Annex IIB). [...] [::Regulatory status] The pest is currently officially regulated by 2000/29/EC on plants of Abies, Larix, Picea, Pinus and Pseudotsuga over 3 m in height, other than fruit and seeds, wood of conifers (Coniferales) with bark, isolated bark of conifers. [] I. cembrae is regulated as a quarantine pest in protected zones (Annex IIB): Greece, Ireland and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland and Isle of Man). [] [...] [] Although the pest is regulated on Abies and Pseudotsuga spp., there is no scientific evidence in the literature that Abies and Pseudotsuga spp. are hosts for I. cembrae. [...] [::Pest potential for entry, establishment and spread in the EU territory] Entry: the pest is already established in 16 MSs. Since entry by natural spread from EU areas where the pest is present is possible, only isolated areas (e.g. islands) can be long-term protected zones. [] Establishment: the climate of the EU protected zones is similar to that of MSs where I. cembrae is established, and the pest's main host plants are present. [] Spread: adults can disperse naturally. They can fly over tens of kilometers. The pest can also spread by human assistance, e.g. with the transportation of wood, wood chips, bark, wood packaging material, dunnage of conifers and possibly plants for planting. [...] [] Plants for planting are not a major pathway. [...] [] Uncertainty regarding the capacity of maturating adults to be transported in the shoots of young plants. [...] [::Potential for consequences in the EU territory] The pest usually attacks dead or dying trees, but is known to have killed thousands of healthy trees after triggering events such as storms or dry summers. [...] [] Massive attacks on young forest trees, 8-12 years old, have been reported; maturation feeding occurs in young shoots. [...] [::Available measures] In isolated areas (e.g. islands) that cannot be reached by natural spread, measures can be put in place to prevent the introduction with wood, wood products, wood chips, bark and plants for planting. Debarking wood and heat treatment of wood, bark and chips and inspection of plants for planting are effective. [] When such geographical barriers do not exist, there is no possibility to prevent the entry, establishment and spread of I. cembrae by natural dispersal. [...] [] Although it is not common practice, plants for planting can be produced in pest-free places of production and can be sprayed with an insecticide prior to shipment. [...] [::Conclusion on pest categorisation] All criteria assessed by EFSA above for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest were met. [...] [] The criteria for considering I. cembrae as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest are not met since plants for planting are not the main pathway. [...] [::Aspects of assessment to focus on/scenarios to address in future if appropriate] The pest is morphologically and biologically extremely close to Ips subelongatus, an Asian species still absent in Europe and which can introduce new pathogens. The capacity of maturating adults to be transported inconspicuously in the shoots of young plants is still unknown. [...]
@article{jegerPestCategorisationIps2017c,
  title = {Pest Categorisation of {{Ips}} Cembrae},
  author = {Jeger, Michael and Bragard, Claude and Caffier, David and Candresse, Thierry and Chatzivassiliou, Elisavet and Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina and Gilioli, Gianni and Jaques Miret, Josep A. and MacLeod, Alan and Navajas Navarro, Maria and Niere, Björn and Parnell, Stephen and Potting, Roel and Rafoss, Trond and Rossi, Vittorio and Urek, Gregor and Van Bruggen, Ariena and Van der Werf, Wopke and West, Jonathan and Winter, Stephan and Kertész, Virág and Aukhojee, Mitesha and Grégoire, Jean-Claude},
  date = {2017-10},
  journaltitle = {EFSA Journal},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {e05039+},
  issn = {1831-4732},
  doi = {10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5039},
  url = {http://mfkp.org/INRMM/article/14472196},
  abstract = {The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the large larch bark beetle, Ips cembrae (Heer) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. cembrae is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Europe and recognised mainly as a pest of larch (Larix spp.) and occasionally of pine (Pinus spp.) and spruce (Picea spp.). It is distributed in 16 Member States of the EU and listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Protected zones are in place in Greece, Ireland and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland and Isle of Man). Wood, wood products, bark and wood packaging material are considered as pathways for this pest, which is also able to disperse by flight. The insects normally establish on fallen or weakened trees but, when their populations are high, can also mass-attack healthy trees. The males produce aggregation pheromones that attract conspecifics of both sexes. The insects also inoculate pathogenic fungi to their hosts. There are one to two generations per year. Before establishing their broods, the young adults need to proceed to maturation feeding either within the bark of the tree where they developed or in 2-18 years old twigs. I. cembrae has been expanding its geographical range in Europe during the second half of the 20th century. Sanitary thinning or clear felling is the major control methods. Quarantine measures are implemented to prevent entry in the protected zones. All criteria for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest are met. The criteria for considering I. cembrae as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest are not met since plants for planting are not viewed as a major pathway.

[Excerpt: Conclusions] [...] [::Identity of the pest] The identity of the pest is established. It can be identified to the species level using conventional entomological keys and molecular methods. [...]

[::Absence/presence of the pest in the EU territory] Ips cembrae is present and widely distributed in the EU, it has been reported from 16 MSs. It is a Protected Zone quarantine pest in Greece, Ireland and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland and Isle of Man) (Annex IIB). [...]

[::Regulatory status] The pest is currently officially regulated by 2000/29/EC on plants of Abies, Larix, Picea, Pinus and Pseudotsuga over 3 m in height, other than fruit and seeds, wood of conifers (Coniferales) with bark, isolated bark of conifers.

[] I. cembrae is regulated as a quarantine pest in protected zones (Annex IIB): Greece, Ireland and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland and Isle of Man).

[] [...]

[] Although the pest is regulated on Abies and Pseudotsuga spp., there is no scientific evidence in the literature that Abies and Pseudotsuga spp. are hosts for I. cembrae. [...] 

[::Pest potential for entry, establishment and spread in the EU territory] Entry: the pest is already established in 16 MSs. Since entry by natural spread from EU areas where the pest is present is possible, only isolated areas (e.g. islands) can be long-term protected zones.

[] Establishment: the climate of the EU protected zones is similar to that of MSs where I. cembrae is established, and the pest's main host plants are present.

[] Spread: adults can disperse naturally. They can fly over tens of kilometers. The pest can also spread by human assistance, e.g. with the transportation of wood, wood chips, bark, wood packaging material, dunnage of conifers and possibly plants for planting. [...]

[] Plants for planting are not a major pathway. [...]

[] Uncertainty regarding the capacity of maturating adults to be transported in the shoots of young plants. [...]

[::Potential for consequences in the EU territory] The pest usually attacks dead or dying trees, but is known to have killed thousands of healthy trees after triggering events such as storms or dry summers. [...] [] Massive attacks on young forest trees, 8-12 years old, have been reported; maturation feeding occurs in young shoots. [...]

[::Available measures] In isolated areas (e.g. islands) that cannot be reached by natural spread, measures can be put in place to prevent the introduction with wood, wood products, wood chips, bark and plants for planting. Debarking wood and heat treatment of wood, bark and chips and inspection of plants for planting are effective.

[] When such geographical barriers do not exist, there is no possibility to prevent the entry, establishment and spread of I. cembrae by natural dispersal. [...]

[] Although it is not common practice, plants for planting can be produced in pest-free places of production and can be sprayed with an insecticide prior to shipment. [...]

[::Conclusion on pest categorisation] All criteria assessed by EFSA above for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest were met. [...] [] The criteria for considering I. cembrae as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest are not met since plants for planting are not the main pathway. [...]

[::Aspects of assessment to focus on/scenarios to address in future if appropriate] The pest is morphologically and biologically extremely close to Ips subelongatus, an Asian species still absent in Europe and which can introduce new pathogens. The capacity of maturating adults to be transported inconspicuously in the shoots of young plants is still unknown. [...]},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-14472196,~to-add-doi-URL,disturbances,efsa,efsa-scientific-opinion,europe,forest-pests,ips-cembrae,larix-spp,picea-spp,pinus-spp,plant-pests},
  number = {11}
}
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