Pest Categorisation of Ips Sexdentatus. Jeger, M., Bragard, C., Caffier, D., Candresse, T., Chatzivassiliou, E., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Gilioli, G., Jaques Miret, J. A., MacLeod, A., Navajas Navarro, M., Niere, B., Parnell, S., Potting, R., Rafoss, T., Rossi, V., Urek, G., Van Bruggen, A., Van der Werf, W., West, J., Winter, S., Kertész, V., Aukhojee, M., & Grégoire, J. 15(11):e04999+.
Pest Categorisation of Ips Sexdentatus [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the six-toothed bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus (Börner) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. sexdentatus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Eurasia and recognised mainly as a pest of pine (Pinus spp., in the pest's whole range) and spruce (mainly Picea orientalis in Turkey and Georgia). It also might occasionally attack Larix spp. and Abies spp. It is distributed throughout the EU (24 Member States). It is a protected zone quarantine pest in Ireland, Cyprus and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland, Isle of Man), listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Wood, wood products, bark and wood packaging material are considered as pathways for this pest, which is also able to disperse by flight over tens of kilometres. The adults normally establish on fallen or weakened trees (e.g. after a fire or a drought) and can also mass-attack healthy trees. The males produce aggregation pheromones that attract conspecifics of both sexes. The insects also inoculate pathogenic fungi to their hosts. There are one to five generations per year. The wide current geographical range of I. sexdentatus suggests that it is able to establish anywhere in the EU where its hosts are present. Sanitary thinning or clear-felling are the major control methods. Pheromone mass-trapping is also locally implemented. Quarantine measures are implemented to prevent entry into the protected zones. All criteria for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest are met. The criteria for considering I. sexdentatus as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest are not met since plants for planting are not viewed as a pathway. [Excerpt: Conclusions] [...] [::Identity of the pest] The identity of the pest is established. It can be identified to the species level using conventional entomological keys. [...] [::Absence/presence of the pest in the EU territory] I sexdentatus is present and widely distributed in the EU; it has been reported from 24 EU MS. The protected zones, Ireland, Cyprus and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man), are free from the pest. [...] [::Regulatory status] The pest is currently officially regulated by 2000/29/EC on plants of Abies, Larix, Picea, Pinus over 3 m in height, other than fruit and seeds, wood of conifers (Coniferales) with bark, isolated bark of conifers. [] I. sexdentatus is regulated as a quarantine pest in protected zones (Annex IIB): Ireland, Cyprus and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland, Isle of Man). [] [...] [] Although the pest is regulated on Abies and Larix spp., there is no scientific evidence in the literature, apart from a brief mention by Chararas (1962), that Abies spp. and Larix spp. are hosts for I. sexdentatus. [...] [::Pest potential for entry, establishment and spread in the EU territory] Entry: the pest is established in 24 MS. Since entry by natural spread from EU areas where the pest is present is possible, only isolated areas (e.g. islands) can be long-term protected zones. [] Establishment: the climate of the EU protected zones is similar to that of MSs where I. sexdentatus is established, and the pest's main host plants are present. [] Spread: adults can disperse naturally. They can fly over tens of kilometres. The pest can also spread by human assistance, e.g. with the transportation of wood, wood chips, bark, wood packaging material and dunnage of conifers. [...] [] Plants for planting are not a pathway for the spread of I. sexdentatus. [...] [::Potential for consequences in the EU territory] The pest is secondary, but is known to have killed thousands of trees after triggering events such as storms or dry summers. [...] [] Young trees are not attacked by I. sexdentatus; therefore, impacts in nurseries are not expected. [...] [::Available measures] In isolated areas (e.g. islands) that cannot be reached by natural spread, measures can be put in place to prevent the introduction of the pest. For wood, wood products, wood chips and bark this can be achieved by debarking wood and heat treatment of wood, bark and chips. [] When such geographical barriers do not exist, there is no possibility to prevent the entry, establishment and spread of I. sexdentatus by natural dispersal. [...] [] Young plants are not attacked by I. sexdentatus. [...] [::Conclusion on pest categorisation] All criteria assessed by EFSA above for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest were met. [...] [] The criteria for considering I. sexdentatus as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest are not met since plants for planting are not a pathway. [...] [::Aspects of assessment to focus on/scenarios to address in future if appropriate] The difference of aggressiveness between the attacks in the EU (mostly secondary, on fallen or weak pines) and the more primary attacks (on standing, healthy Oriental spruce) in Turkey and Georgia raises the issue of possible intraspecific variations within the I. sexdentatus species, with potential quarantine implications. [...]
@article{jegerPestCategorisationIps2017d,
  title = {Pest Categorisation of {{Ips}} Sexdentatus},
  author = {Jeger, Michael and Bragard, Claude and Caffier, David and Candresse, Thierry and Chatzivassiliou, Elisavet and Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina and Gilioli, Gianni and Jaques Miret, Josep A. and MacLeod, Alan and Navajas Navarro, Maria and Niere, Björn and Parnell, Stephen and Potting, Roel and Rafoss, Trond and Rossi, Vittorio and Urek, Gregor and Van Bruggen, Ariena and Van der Werf, Wopke and West, Jonathan and Winter, Stephan and Kertész, Virág and Aukhojee, Mitesha and Grégoire, Jean-Claude},
  date = {2017-11},
  journaltitle = {EFSA Journal},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {e04999+},
  issn = {1831-4732},
  doi = {10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4999},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4999},
  abstract = {The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of the six-toothed bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus (Börner) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), for the EU. I. sexdentatus is a well-defined and distinguishable species, native to Eurasia and recognised mainly as a pest of pine (Pinus spp., in the pest's whole range) and spruce (mainly Picea orientalis in Turkey and Georgia). It also might occasionally attack Larix spp. and Abies spp. It is distributed throughout the EU (24 Member States). It is a protected zone quarantine pest in Ireland, Cyprus and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland, Isle of Man), listed in Annex IIB of Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Wood, wood products, bark and wood packaging material are considered as pathways for this pest, which is also able to disperse by flight over tens of kilometres. The adults normally establish on fallen or weakened trees (e.g. after a fire or a drought) and can also mass-attack healthy trees. The males produce aggregation pheromones that attract conspecifics of both sexes. The insects also inoculate pathogenic fungi to their hosts. There are one to five generations per year. The wide current geographical range of I. sexdentatus suggests that it is able to establish anywhere in the EU where its hosts are present. Sanitary thinning or clear-felling are the major control methods. Pheromone mass-trapping is also locally implemented. Quarantine measures are implemented to prevent entry into the protected zones. All criteria for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest are met. The criteria for considering I. sexdentatus as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest are not met since plants for planting are not viewed as a pathway.

[Excerpt: Conclusions] [...] [::Identity of the pest] The identity of the pest is established. It can be identified to the species level using conventional entomological keys. [...]

[::Absence/presence of the pest in the EU territory] I sexdentatus is present and widely distributed in the EU; it has been reported from 24 EU MS. The protected zones, Ireland, Cyprus and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man), are free from the pest. [...]

[::Regulatory status] The pest is currently officially regulated by 2000/29/EC on plants of Abies, Larix, Picea, Pinus over 3 m in height, other than fruit and seeds, wood of conifers (Coniferales) with bark, isolated bark of conifers.

[] I. sexdentatus is regulated as a quarantine pest in protected zones (Annex IIB): Ireland, Cyprus and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland, Isle of Man).

[] [...]

[] Although the pest is regulated on Abies and Larix spp., there is no scientific evidence in the literature, apart from a brief mention by Chararas (1962), that Abies spp. and Larix spp. are hosts for I. sexdentatus. [...]

[::Pest potential for entry, establishment and spread in the EU territory] Entry: the pest is established in 24 MS. Since entry by natural spread from EU areas where the pest is present is possible, only isolated areas (e.g. islands) can be long-term protected zones.

[] Establishment: the climate of the EU protected zones is similar to that of MSs where I. sexdentatus is established, and the pest's main host plants are present.

[] Spread: adults can disperse naturally. They can fly over tens of kilometres. The pest can also spread by human assistance, e.g. with the transportation of wood, wood chips, bark, wood packaging material and dunnage of conifers. [...]

[] Plants for planting are not a pathway for the spread of I. sexdentatus. [...]

[::Potential for consequences in the EU territory] The pest is secondary, but is known to have killed thousands of trees after triggering events such as storms or dry summers. [...] [] Young trees are not attacked by I. sexdentatus; therefore, impacts in nurseries are not expected. [...]

[::Available measures] In isolated areas (e.g. islands) that cannot be reached by natural spread, measures can be put in place to prevent the introduction of the pest. For wood, wood products, wood chips and bark this can be achieved by debarking wood and heat treatment of wood, bark and chips.

[] When such geographical barriers do not exist, there is no possibility to prevent the entry, establishment and spread of I. sexdentatus by natural dispersal. [...]

[] Young plants are not attacked by I. sexdentatus. [...]

[::Conclusion on pest categorisation] All criteria assessed by EFSA above for consideration as potential protected zone quarantine pest were met. [...] [] The criteria for considering I. sexdentatus as a potential regulated non-quarantine pest are not met since plants for planting are not a pathway. [...]

[::Aspects of assessment to focus on/scenarios to address in future if appropriate] The difference of aggressiveness between the attacks in the EU (mostly secondary, on fallen or weak pines) and the more primary attacks (on standing, healthy Oriental spruce) in Turkey and Georgia raises the issue of possible intraspecific variations within the I. sexdentatus species, with potential quarantine implications. [...]},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-14472071,~to-add-doi-URL,abies-spp,disturbances,efsa,efsa-scientific-opinion,europe,forest-pests,ips-sexdentatus,larix-spp,picea-spp,pinus-spp,plant-pests},
  number = {11}
}
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