Cortical surface shift estimation using stereovision and optical flow motion tracking via projection image registration. Ji, S., Fan, X., Roberts, W, D., Hartov, A., Paulsen, & D, K. Medical image analysis, 18(7):1169--83, October, 2014.
Cortical surface shift estimation using stereovision and optical flow motion tracking via projection image registration. [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Stereovision is an important intraoperative imaging technique that captures the exposed parenchymal surface noninvasively during open cranial surgery. Estimating cortical surface shift efficiently and accurately is critical to compensate for brain deformation in the operating room (OR). In this study, we present an automatic and robust registration technique based on optical flow (OF) motion tracking to compensate for cortical surface displacement throughout surgery. Stereo images of the cortical surface were acquired at multiple time points after dural opening to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) texture intensity-encoded cortical surfaces. A local coordinate system was established with its z-axis parallel to the average surface normal direction of the reconstructed cortical surface immediately after dural opening in order to produce two-dimensional (2D) projection images. A dense displacement field between the two projection images was determined directly from OF motion tracking without the need for feature identification or tracking. The starting and end points of the displacement vectors on the two cortical surfaces were then obtained following spatial mapping inversion to produce the full 3D displacement of the exposed cortical surface. We evaluated the technique with images obtained from digital phantoms and 18 surgical cases - 10 of which involved independent measurements of feature locations acquired with a tracked stylus for accuracy comparisons, and 8 others of which 4 involved stereo image acquisitions at three or more time points during surgery to illustrate utility throughout a procedure. Results from the digital phantom images were very accurate (0.05 pixels). In the 10 surgical cases with independently digitized point locations, the average agreement between feature coordinates derived from the cortical surface reconstructions was 1.7-2.1mm relative to those determined with the tracked stylus probe. The agreement in feature displacement tracking was also comparable to tracked probe data (difference in displacement magnitude was \textless1mm on average). The average magnitude of cortical surface displacement was 7.9 ± 5.7 mm (range 0.3-24.4 mm) in all patient cases with the displacement components along gravity being 5.2 ± 6.0 mm relative to the lateral movement of 2.4 ± 1.6 mm. Thus, our technique appears to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficiency (typically ∼15 s), for applications in the OR.
@article{ ji_cortical_2014,
  title = {Cortical surface shift estimation using stereovision and optical flow motion tracking via projection image registration.},
  volume = {18},
  url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25077845},
  doi = {10.1016/j.media.2014.07.001},
  abstract = {Stereovision is an important intraoperative imaging technique that captures the exposed parenchymal surface noninvasively during open cranial surgery. Estimating cortical surface shift efficiently and accurately is critical to compensate for brain deformation in the operating room (OR). In this study, we present an automatic and robust registration technique based on optical flow (OF) motion tracking to compensate for cortical surface displacement throughout surgery. Stereo images of the cortical surface were acquired at multiple time points after dural opening to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) texture intensity-encoded cortical surfaces. A local coordinate system was established with its z-axis parallel to the average surface normal direction of the reconstructed cortical surface immediately after dural opening in order to produce two-dimensional (2D) projection images. A dense displacement field between the two projection images was determined directly from OF motion tracking without the need for feature identification or tracking. The starting and end points of the displacement vectors on the two cortical surfaces were then obtained following spatial mapping inversion to produce the full 3D displacement of the exposed cortical surface. We evaluated the technique with images obtained from digital phantoms and 18 surgical cases - 10 of which involved independent measurements of feature locations acquired with a tracked stylus for accuracy comparisons, and 8 others of which 4 involved stereo image acquisitions at three or more time points during surgery to illustrate utility throughout a procedure. Results from the digital phantom images were very accurate (0.05 pixels). In the 10 surgical cases with independently digitized point locations, the average agreement between feature coordinates derived from the cortical surface reconstructions was 1.7-2.1mm relative to those determined with the tracked stylus probe. The agreement in feature displacement tracking was also comparable to tracked probe data (difference in displacement magnitude was {\textless}1mm on average). The average magnitude of cortical surface displacement was 7.9 ± 5.7 mm (range 0.3-24.4 mm) in all patient cases with the displacement components along gravity being 5.2 ± 6.0 mm relative to the lateral movement of 2.4 ± 1.6 mm. Thus, our technique appears to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficiency (typically ∼15 s), for applications in the OR.},
  number = {7},
  journal = {Medical image analysis},
  author = {Ji, Songbai and Fan, Xiaoyao and Roberts, David W and Hartov, Alex and Paulsen, Keith D},
  month = {October},
  year = {2014},
  keywords = {Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Brain Diseases, Brain Diseases: pathology, Brain Diseases: surgery, Computer-Assisted, Computer-Assisted: instrumentation, Computer-Assisted: methods, Female, Humans, Image Enhancement, Image Enhancement: methods, Imaging, Male, Middle Aged, Neuronavigation, Neuronavigation: instrumentation, Neuronavigation: methods, Neurosurgical Procedures, Phantoms, Stereotaxic Techniques, Surgery},
  pages = {1169--83}
}

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