Diapause termination, post-diapause development and reproduction in the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Jiang, X. F., Huang, S. H., Luo, L. Z., Liu, Y., & Zhang, L. Journal of Insect Physiology, 56(9):1325–1331, September, 2010.
Diapause termination, post-diapause development and reproduction in the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Effects of photoperiod and cold exposure on diapause termination, post-diapause development and reproduction in Loxostege sticticalis were examined. Larvae were reared at diapause inducing condition (22 °C, L:D 12:12) consistently or transferred to long day photoperiod (L:D 16:8) and darkness (L:D 0:24) respectively, after entering into diapause. Diapause was terminated in approximately 40% of the larvae after 36 days, and no significant differences were observed between photoperiods, suggesting larval diapause was terminated spontaneously without being induced by photoperiods. Cold exposure significantly hastened diapause termination. The diapause termination incidence increased significantly with peaks of 98% at both 5 °C and 0 °C exposure for 30 days, as compared to 42% in controls not exposed to cold, while the mortality and number of days required for diapause termination decreased dramatically. The optimal low temperature exposure periods under 5 °C or 0 °C were 20 days and 30 days, showing a higher termination incidence and shorter time for diapause termination. This suggests that the low temperatures in winter play an important role in diapause termination under natural conditions. The threshold temperatures for post-diapause development in prepupae and pupae were 9.13 °C and 10.60 °C respectively, with corresponding accumulations of 125 and 200 degree-days. Adults that experienced larval diapause significantly delayed their first oviposition, oviposition period was prolonged, and the lifetime number of eggs laid was decreased, however both males and females have significantly longer longevity. The field validation of diapause termination, the degree-days model, and the relationship between diapause and migration in L. sticticalis were also discussed.
@article{jiang_diapause_2010,
	title = {Diapause termination, post-diapause development and reproduction in the beet webworm, {Loxostege} sticticalis ({Lepidoptera}: {Pyralidae})},
	volume = {56},
	issn = {00221910},
	shorttitle = {Diapause termination, post-diapause development and reproduction in the beet webworm, {Loxostege} sticticalis ({Lepidoptera}},
	url = {http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022191010001320},
	doi = {10.1016/j.jinsphys.2010.04.016},
	abstract = {Effects of photoperiod and cold exposure on diapause termination, post-diapause development and reproduction in Loxostege sticticalis were examined. Larvae were reared at diapause inducing condition (22 °C, L:D 12:12) consistently or transferred to long day photoperiod (L:D 16:8) and darkness (L:D 0:24) respectively, after entering into diapause. Diapause was terminated in approximately 40\% of the larvae after 36 days, and no significant differences were observed between photoperiods, suggesting larval diapause was terminated spontaneously without being induced by photoperiods. Cold exposure significantly hastened diapause termination. The diapause termination incidence increased significantly with peaks of 98\% at both 5 °C and 0 °C exposure for 30 days, as compared to 42\% in controls not exposed to cold, while the mortality and number of days required for diapause termination decreased dramatically. The optimal low temperature exposure periods under 5 °C or 0 °C were 20 days and 30 days, showing a higher termination incidence and shorter time for diapause termination. This suggests that the low temperatures in winter play an important role in diapause termination under natural conditions. The threshold temperatures for post-diapause development in prepupae and pupae were 9.13 °C and 10.60 °C respectively, with corresponding accumulations of 125 and 200 degree-days. Adults that experienced larval diapause significantly delayed their first oviposition, oviposition period was prolonged, and the lifetime number of eggs laid was decreased, however both males and females have significantly longer longevity. The field validation of diapause termination, the degree-days model, and the relationship between diapause and migration in L. sticticalis were also discussed.},
	language = {en},
	number = {9},
	urldate = {2017-12-18},
	journal = {Journal of Insect Physiology},
	author = {Jiang, Xing Fu and Huang, Shao Hong and Luo, Li Zhi and Liu, Yueqiu and Zhang, Lei},
	month = sep,
	year = {2010},
	pages = {1325--1331}
}
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