Sources of variance in BC mass measurements from a small marine engine: Influence of the instruments, fuels and loads. Jiang, Y., Yang, J., Gagné, S., Chan, T., W., Thomson, K., Fofie, E., Cary, R., A., Rutherford, D., Comer, B., Swanson, J., Lin, Y., Van Rooy, P., Asa-Awuku, A., Jung, H., Barsanti, K., Karavalakis, G., Cocker, D., Durbin, T., D., Miller, J., W., & Johnson, K., C. Atmospheric Environment, 182:128-137, Pergamon, 6, 2018.
Sources of variance in BC mass measurements from a small marine engine: Influence of the instruments, fuels and loads [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
Knowledge of black carbon (BC) emission factors from ships is important from human health and environmental perspectives. A study of instruments measuring BC and fuels typically used in marine operation was carried out on a small marine engine. Six analytical methods measured the BC emissions in the exhaust of the marine engine operated at two load points (25% and 75%) while burning one of three fuels: a distillate marine (DMA), a low sulfur, residual marine (RMB-30) and a high-sulfur residual marine (RMG-380). The average emission factors with all instruments increased from 0.08 to 1.88 gBC/kg fuel in going from 25 to 75% load. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested BC emissions against instrument, load, and combined fuel properties and showed that both engine load and fuels had a statistically significant impact on BC emission factors. While BC emissions were impacted by the fuels used, none of the fuel properties investigated (sulfur content, viscosity, carbon residue and CCAI) was a primary driver for BC emissions. Of the two residual fuels, RMB-30 with the lower sulfur content, lower viscosity and lower residual carbon, had the highest BC emission factors. BC emission factors determined with the different instruments showed a good correlation with the PAS values with correlation coefficients R2 >0.95. A key finding of this research is the relative BC measured values were mostly independent of load and fuel, except for some instruments in certain fuel and load combinations.
@article{
 title = {Sources of variance in BC mass measurements from a small marine engine: Influence of the instruments, fuels and loads},
 type = {article},
 year = {2018},
 identifiers = {[object Object]},
 pages = {128-137},
 volume = {182},
 websites = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S135223101830147X},
 month = {6},
 publisher = {Pergamon},
 day = {1},
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 abstract = {Knowledge of black carbon (BC) emission factors from ships is important from human health and environmental perspectives. A study of instruments measuring BC and fuels typically used in marine operation was carried out on a small marine engine. Six analytical methods measured the BC emissions in the exhaust of the marine engine operated at two load points (25% and 75%) while burning one of three fuels: a distillate marine (DMA), a low sulfur, residual marine (RMB-30) and a high-sulfur residual marine (RMG-380). The average emission factors with all instruments increased from 0.08 to 1.88 gBC/kg fuel in going from 25 to 75% load. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) tested BC emissions against instrument, load, and combined fuel properties and showed that both engine load and fuels had a statistically significant impact on BC emission factors. While BC emissions were impacted by the fuels used, none of the fuel properties investigated (sulfur content, viscosity, carbon residue and CCAI) was a primary driver for BC emissions. Of the two residual fuels, RMB-30 with the lower sulfur content, lower viscosity and lower residual carbon, had the highest BC emission factors. BC emission factors determined with the different instruments showed a good correlation with the PAS values with correlation coefficients R2 >0.95. A key finding of this research is the relative BC measured values were mostly independent of load and fuel, except for some instruments in certain fuel and load combinations.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Jiang, Yu and Yang, Jiacheng and Gagné, Stéphanie and Chan, Tak W. and Thomson, Kevin and Fofie, Emmanuel and Cary, Robert A. and Rutherford, Dan and Comer, Bryan and Swanson, Jacob and Lin, Yue and Van Rooy, Paul and Asa-Awuku, Akua and Jung, Heejung and Barsanti, Kelley and Karavalakis, Georgios and Cocker, David and Durbin, Thomas D. and Miller, J. Wayne and Johnson, Kent C.},
 journal = {Atmospheric Environment}
}

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