Executive Summary. Jol, A., Füssel, H., Lung, T., Hildén, M., & Marx, A. In Füssel, H., Jol, A., Marx, A., & Hildén, M., editors, Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerability in Europe 2016 - An Indicator-Based Report, volume 1/2017, of EEA Report, pages 12–30. Publications Office of the European Union.
Executive Summary [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy precipitation and droughts are increasing in frequency and intensity in many regions. [::] New record levels of some climatic variables have been established in recent years, notably global and European temperature in 2014 and again in 2015, global sea level in 2015 and winter Arctic sea ice extent in 2016. Some climatic changes have accelerated in recent decades, such as global sea level rise and the decline of the polar ice sheets. [::] Global climate change has substantially increased the probability of various recent extreme weather and climate events in Europe. The reliability of this finding has been strengthened by recent progress in extreme weather attribution techniques. [::] The observed changes in climate are already having wide-ranging impacts on ecosystems, economic sectors and human health and well-being in Europe. Recent studies show that various observed changes in the environment and society, such as changes in forest species, the establishment of invasive alien species and disease outbreaks, have been caused or enhanced by global climate change. [::] Ecosystems and protected areas are under pressure from climate change and other stressors, such as land use change. The observed impacts of climate change are a threat to biodiversity in Europe, but they also affect forestry, fishery, agriculture and human health. In response to climate change, many land-based animal and plant species are changing their life cycles and are migrating northwards and to higher altitudes; regional extinctions have been observed; various invasive alien species have established themselves or have expanded their range; and various marine species, including commercially important fish stocks, are migrating northwards. [::] Most impacts of climate change across Europe have been adverse, although some impacts have been beneficial. The rise in sea level has increased flood risks and contributed to erosion along European coasts. The observed increase in heat waves has had significant effects on human health, in particular in cities. Heat waves are also increasing the risk of electricity blackouts and forest fires. Transport and tourism have also been affected by climate change, with large regional differences. Examples of beneficial impacts of climate change include a decrease in heating demand and some benefits to agriculture in northern Europe. [::] Climate change will continue for many decades to come, having further impacts on ecosystems and society. Improved climate projections provide further evidence that future climate change will increase climate‑related extremes (e.g. heat waves, heavy precipitation, droughts, top wind speeds and storm surges) in many European regions. [::] The magnitude of future climate change and its impacts from the middle of the century onwards depend on the effectiveness of global climate mitigation efforts. The magnitude of climate change and its impacts can be substantially reduced by an ambitious global mitigation policy compatible with the mitigation goal of the 2015 Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) of keeping the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. [] [...]
@incollection{jolExecutiveSummary2017,
  title = {Executive Summary},
  booktitle = {Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerability in {{Europe}} 2016 - {{An}} Indicator-Based Report},
  author = {Jol, André and Füssel, Hans-Martin and Lung, Tobias and Hildén, Mikael and Marx, Andreas},
  editor = {Füssel, Hans-Martin and Jol, André and Marx, Andreas and Hildén, Mikael},
  date = {2017-01},
  volume = {1/2017},
  pages = {12--30},
  publisher = {{Publications Office of the European Union}},
  location = {{Luxembourg}},
  issn = {1977-8449},
  doi = {10.2800/534806},
  url = {http://mfkp.org/INRMM/article/14262069},
  abstract = {[Excerpt: Key messages] [::] All of the key findings from the 2012 European Environment Agency (EEA) report on climate change, impacts and vulnerability in Europe are still valid. [::] Climate change is continuing globally and in Europe. Land and sea temperatures are increasing; precipitation patterns are changing, generally making wet regions in Europe wetter, particularly in winter, and dry regions drier, particularly in summer; sea ice extent, glacier volume and snow cover are decreasing; sea levels are rising; and climate-related extremes such as heat waves, heavy precipitation and droughts are increasing in frequency and intensity in many regions. [::] New record levels of some climatic variables have been established in recent years, notably global and European temperature in 2014 and again in 2015, global sea level in 2015 and winter Arctic sea ice extent in 2016. Some climatic changes have accelerated in recent decades, such as global sea level rise and the decline of the polar ice sheets. [::] Global climate change has substantially increased the probability of various recent extreme weather and climate events in Europe. The reliability of this finding has been strengthened by recent progress in extreme weather attribution techniques. [::] The observed changes in climate are already having wide-ranging impacts on ecosystems, economic sectors and human health and well-being in Europe. Recent studies show that various observed changes in the environment and society, such as changes in forest species, the establishment of invasive alien species and disease outbreaks, have been caused or enhanced by global climate change. [::] Ecosystems and protected areas are under pressure from climate change and other stressors, such as land use change. The observed impacts of climate change are a threat to biodiversity in Europe, but they also affect forestry, fishery, agriculture and human health. In response to climate change, many land-based animal and plant species are changing their life cycles and are migrating northwards and to higher altitudes; regional extinctions have been observed; various invasive alien species have established themselves or have expanded their range; and various marine species, including commercially important fish stocks, are migrating northwards. [::] Most impacts of climate change across Europe have been adverse, although some impacts have been beneficial. The rise in sea level has increased flood risks and contributed to erosion along European coasts. The observed increase in heat waves has had significant effects on human health, in particular in cities. Heat waves are also increasing the risk of electricity blackouts and forest fires. Transport and tourism have also been affected by climate change, with large regional differences. Examples of beneficial impacts of climate change include a decrease in heating demand and some benefits to agriculture in northern Europe. [::] Climate change will continue for many decades to come, having further impacts on ecosystems and society. Improved climate projections provide further evidence that future climate change will increase climate‑related extremes (e.g. heat waves, heavy precipitation, droughts, top wind speeds and storm surges) in many European regions. [::] The magnitude of future climate change and its impacts from the middle of the century onwards depend on the effectiveness of global climate mitigation efforts. The magnitude of climate change and its impacts can be substantially reduced by an ambitious global mitigation policy compatible with the mitigation goal of the 2015 Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) of keeping the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels.

[] [...]},
  isbn = {978-92-9213-835-6},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-14262069,~to-add-doi-URL,acidification,artic-sea-ice,assessment,baltic-sea-ice,climate-change,climate-extremes,climatic-niche-shift,diseases,droughts,europe,floods,forest-fires,forest-resources,glaciers,greenland,heatwaves,human-health,indicators,indices,marine-ecosystems,phenology,precipitation,rcp26,rcp45,rcp60,rcp85,river-flow,sea-level,snow,soil-moisture,soil-resources,species-distribution,sres-a1b,sres-b1,sres-b2,storm,temperature,vulnerability,water-resources,windstorm},
  series = {{{EEA Report}}}
}
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