First Reported Outbreak of Charcoal Disease Caused by Biscogniauxia Mediterranea on Turkey Oak in Slovenia. Jurc, D. & Ogris, N. 55(2):299.
First Reported Outbreak of Charcoal Disease Caused by Biscogniauxia Mediterranea on Turkey Oak in Slovenia [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
In August 2003, in an area of coppice-grown Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) covering c. 180 ha, about 50\,% of leaves turned brown. In spring 2004, whole trees were dead and the bark of the others died off in strips; there were shoots only from parts of the tree crowns. The same phenomenon also occurred patchily over c. 16 000 ha of mixed forests in the Karst region of Slovenia. The bark began to crack and fall off in June 2004, and in August the first perithecial stromata of Biscogniauxia mediterranea were observed in bark cracks on tree trunks and branches. At the beginning of March 2005 there were a large number of stromata on the bark of dead trees: more than 100 stromata could be found on a single tree with a diameter of 27 cm at chest height. Stromata measured (3-) 19·6 (-36) × (1·5-) 3·4 (-7·5) cm; perithecia were tubular (0·43-) 0·62 (-0·81) × (0·08-) 0·14 (-0·22) mm; ascospores measured (13-) 16 (-19·5) × (6-) 7·5 (-9) µm; asci (114-) 145 (-175) × (8·5-) 10·5 (-14) µm; the outer dehiscing layer was (0·07-) 0·16 (-0·24) mm thick. Measurements indicate that the fungus could be classified as B. mediterranea var. microspora (Ju et al., 1998). The perithecial stromata and pure cultures were deposited in the Herbarium of the Slovenian Forestry Institute with accession numbers 1505-1507. Disease symptoms appeared after severe drought and unusually hot weather. Total rainfall before the onset of symptoms in June, July and August 2003 was 27, 12 and 66\,%, respectively, of the 30-year average, while average monthly temperatures for the same months were 5·8, 3·6 and 5·6°C higher than the 30-year average. The development of charcoal disease on oaks after drought is well documented (Vannini & Valentini, 1994). The endophytic presence of this fungus in living bark enables it quickly to overgrow the stressed tissues of the host and destroy them (Vannini, 1998). Charcoal disease is a serious problem in cork oak (Quercus suber) and Turkey oak in the Mediterranean area, but had never been detected further north than southern Tuscany (Vettraino et al., 2002). The appearance of this new disease in Slovenia, c. 350 km north-east of Tuscany, indicates that climate change could lead to outbreaks of this disease further north.
@article{jurcFirstReportedOutbreak2006,
  title = {First Reported Outbreak of Charcoal Disease Caused by {{Biscogniauxia}} Mediterranea on {{Turkey}} Oak in {{Slovenia}}},
  author = {Jurc, D. and Ogris, N.},
  date = {2006},
  journaltitle = {Plant Pathology},
  volume = {55},
  pages = {299},
  doi = {10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01297.x},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01297.x},
  abstract = {In August 2003, in an area of coppice-grown Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) covering c. 180 ha, about 50\,\% of leaves turned brown. In spring 2004, whole trees were dead and the bark of the others died off in strips; there were shoots only from parts of the tree crowns. The same phenomenon also occurred patchily over c. 16 000 ha of mixed forests in the Karst region of Slovenia. The bark began to crack and fall off in June 2004, and in August the first perithecial stromata of Biscogniauxia mediterranea were observed in bark cracks on tree trunks and branches. At the beginning of March 2005 there were a large number of stromata on the bark of dead trees: more than 100 stromata could be found on a single tree with a diameter of 27 cm at chest height. Stromata measured (3-) 19·6 (-36) × (1·5-) 3·4 (-7·5) cm; perithecia were tubular (0·43-) 0·62 (-0·81) × (0·08-) 0·14 (-0·22) mm; ascospores measured (13-) 16 (-19·5) × (6-) 7·5 (-9) µm; asci (114-) 145 (-175) × (8·5-) 10·5 (-14) µm; the outer dehiscing layer was (0·07-) 0·16 (-0·24) mm thick. Measurements indicate that the fungus could be classified as B. mediterranea var. microspora (Ju et al., 1998). The perithecial stromata and pure cultures were deposited in the Herbarium of the Slovenian Forestry Institute with accession numbers 1505-1507.

Disease symptoms appeared after severe drought and unusually hot weather. Total rainfall before the onset of symptoms in June, July and August 2003 was 27, 12 and 66\,\%, respectively, of the 30-year average, while average monthly temperatures for the same months were 5·8, 3·6 and 5·6°C higher than the 30-year average. The development of charcoal disease on oaks after drought is well documented (Vannini \& Valentini, 1994). The endophytic presence of this fungus in living bark enables it quickly to overgrow the stressed tissues of the host and destroy them (Vannini, 1998).

Charcoal disease is a serious problem in cork oak (Quercus suber) and Turkey oak in the Mediterranean area, but had never been detected further north than southern Tuscany (Vettraino et al., 2002). The appearance of this new disease in Slovenia, c. 350 km north-east of Tuscany, indicates that climate change could lead to outbreaks of this disease further north.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13555260,~to-add-doi-URL,forest-pests,forest-resources,quercus-cerris,slovenia,tree-diseases},
  number = {2}
}
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