Historic Buildings, Material Culture, and People of the Prairie Margin; Architecture, Artifacts, and Synthesis of Historic Archaeology. Jurney, D. H. & Moir, R. W. Archaeology Research Program, Institute for the Study of Earth and Man, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, 1987. Texas Antiquities Permit 312. ARC Library #310
Historic Buildings, Material Culture, and People of the Prairie Margin; Architecture, Artifacts, and Synthesis of Historic Archaeology [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
Architectural investigations were conducted for 38 historic structures in the Richland/Chambers Reservoir between June1982 and June 1984 by the Archaeology Research Program, Southern Methodist University. The Reservoir, located inNavarro and Freestone Counties, is 100 km south of Dallas. It is under construction by the Tarrant County Water Control andImprovement District Number One, Fort Worth, Texas, and will inundate 47,500 acres (19,200 hectares) along Richland and Chambers Creeks. Recovery of architectural data was conducted for 26 dwellings, 4 bridges, and 12 special purpose structures, all dating between 1848 and World War II. In addition, dendrochronological samples were taken from 22 structures, producing 80verified tree-ring dates. Thirteen structures received construction dates. The tree-ring samples yielded several master ring chronologies that provided climatic information on local rainfall patterns and late spring frosts from 1634 to 1980. In addition to the above architectural studies, ethnographic, archival, and specialized artifacts analyses were carried out during the course of the Project. Window glass fragments were quantified and provided important socioeconomic and temporal information for many of the sites. Nails from sheet refuse contexts also provided information useful for reconstructing some buildings that had long since vanished. Refined earthenwares (i.e., ironstones, whitewares, and tinted wares) and stonewares yielded information about household preferences and traditional foodway practices. Ironstones and whitewares revealed strong, conservative preferences for plain, undecorated wares until the early twentieth century. Stoneware sherds occurred primarily in pre-1920 components and exhibited considerable temporal patterning among various glaze and vessel forms.Faunal remains revealed a much higher consumption of beef for nineteenth century black households than originally expected. Animal remains also indicated that hunting supplied some additional varieties of meats, but that the consumption of wild species was a marginal part of all households. Finally, small finds and low frequency artifact categories such as tools, farm equipment parts, personal items, and so forth, provided a personal glimpse into some specific household possessions.Many of these categories also revealed socioeconomic preferences for modest material items, often related to specific household and farm activities (e.g., sad irons, cooking vessels and flatware, horse and stable gear, wagon and machine parts). Few nonessential items were found.The results of all of these studies provide detailed information on many aspects of rural life not highly documented in other records. The layout of farmsteads in North Central Texas conveys a personal picture of the small landowner and tenant farmer, both of whom struggled against rising competition, falling cotton prices, the boll weevil, and finally, mechanization. The archaeological and architectural records contain subtle information on how these households coped with the agricultural technological revolution of the nineteenth and twentieth century. The material record indicates that North CentralTexas farm tenants diverged from farmsteads in other older cotton producing areas in layout, material possessions, and architecture. The Richland Creek Archaeological Project has focused on the material evidence of these differences, and incorporated archival and oral information to provide a synergistic picture of rural life along Richland and Chambers Creeks from the 1850s to the 1920s.
@book{jurney_historic_1987,
	address = {Dallas, Texas},
	series = {Richland {Creek} {Technical} {Series}},
	title = {Historic {Buildings}, {Material} {Culture}, and {People} of the {Prairie} {Margin}; {Architecture}, {Artifacts}, and {Synthesis} of {Historic} {Archaeology}},
	shorttitle = {Historic {Buildings}, {Material} {Culture}, and {People} of the {Prairie} {Margin}},
	url = {https://core.tdar.org/document/359230/historic-buildings-material-culture-and-people-of-the-prairie-margin-architecture-artifacts-and-synthesis-of-historic-archaeology},
	abstract = {Architectural investigations were conducted for 38 historic structures in the Richland/Chambers Reservoir between June1982 and June 1984 by the Archaeology Research Program, Southern Methodist University. The Reservoir, located inNavarro and Freestone Counties, is 100 km south of Dallas. It is under construction by the Tarrant County Water Control andImprovement District Number One, Fort Worth, Texas, and will inundate 47,500 acres (19,200 hectares) along Richland and Chambers Creeks.

Recovery of architectural data was conducted for 26 dwellings, 4 bridges, and 12 special purpose structures, all dating between 1848 and World War II. In addition, dendrochronological samples were taken from 22 structures, producing 80verified tree-ring dates. Thirteen structures received construction dates. The tree-ring samples yielded several master ring chronologies that provided climatic information on local rainfall patterns and late spring frosts from 1634 to 1980.

In addition to the above architectural studies, ethnographic, archival, and specialized artifacts analyses were carried out during the course of the Project. Window glass fragments were quantified and provided important socioeconomic and temporal information for many of the sites. Nails from sheet refuse contexts also provided information useful for reconstructing some buildings that had long since vanished. Refined earthenwares (i.e., ironstones, whitewares, and tinted wares) and stonewares yielded information about household preferences and traditional foodway practices. Ironstones and whitewares revealed strong, conservative preferences for plain, undecorated wares until the early twentieth century. Stoneware sherds occurred primarily in pre-1920 components and exhibited considerable temporal patterning among various glaze and vessel forms.Faunal remains revealed a much higher consumption of beef for nineteenth century black households than originally expected. Animal remains also indicated that hunting supplied some additional varieties of meats, but that the consumption of wild species was a marginal part of all households. Finally, small finds and low frequency artifact categories such as tools, farm equipment parts, personal items, and so forth, provided a personal glimpse into some specific household possessions.Many of these categories also revealed socioeconomic preferences for modest material items, often related to specific household and farm activities (e.g., sad irons, cooking vessels and flatware, horse and stable gear, wagon and machine parts). 

Few nonessential items were found.The results of all of these studies provide detailed information on many aspects of rural life not highly documented in other records. The layout of farmsteads in North Central Texas conveys a personal picture of the small landowner and tenant farmer, both of whom struggled against rising competition, falling cotton prices, the boll weevil, and finally, mechanization. The archaeological and architectural records contain subtle information on how these households coped with the agricultural technological revolution of the nineteenth and twentieth century. The material record indicates that North CentralTexas farm tenants diverged from farmsteads in other older cotton producing areas in layout, material possessions, and architecture. The Richland Creek Archaeological Project has focused on the material evidence of these differences, and incorporated archival and oral information to provide a synergistic picture of rural life along Richland and Chambers Creeks from the 1850s to the 1920s.},
	number = {V},
	publisher = {Archaeology Research Program, Institute for the Study of Earth and Man, Southern Methodist University},
	author = {Jurney, David H. and Moir, Randall W.},
	year = {1987},
	note = {Texas Antiquities Permit 312.
ARC Library \#310},
	keywords = {Freestone County, Held in Trust Collection, Navarro County, Richland-Chambers Reservoir, Texas},
	annote = {Texas Antiquities Permit 312
},
}

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