Seasonal Variations of the Sugars in Birch Sap. Kallio, H. & Ahtonen, S. 25(4):293–304.
Seasonal Variations of the Sugars in Birch Sap [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
The content of the main sugars of birch sap (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh.), which will be used for syrup production in Finland, were monitored by GLC as TMS-derivatives. Glucose and fructose had a concentration maximum at the end of April or at the beginning of May (5-8 g litre-1). This sugar can be regarded as invert sugar. The content of sucrose (0-0·7 g litre-1) decreased and in many cases it had totally disappeared by April. A correlation between sucrose and other sugars was not observed. The concentration of galactose was always low (0·01-0·03 g litre-1). No diurnal variation was observed in the content of any sugar. The highest sap flow was obtained in the third flow week at the end of April and more than one-third of the total sugar yield could be collected during that period.
@article{kallioSeasonalVariationsSugars1987,
  title = {Seasonal Variations of the Sugars in Birch Sap},
  author = {Kallio, H. and Ahtonen, S.},
  date = {1987-01},
  journaltitle = {Food Chemistry},
  volume = {25},
  pages = {293--304},
  issn = {0308-8146},
  doi = {10.1016/0308-8146(87)90016-1},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(87)90016-1},
  abstract = {The content of the main sugars of birch sap (Betula pendula Roth. and B. pubescens Ehrh.), which will be used for syrup production in Finland, were monitored by GLC as TMS-derivatives. Glucose and fructose had a concentration maximum at the end of April or at the beginning of May (5-8 g litre-1). This sugar can be regarded as invert sugar. The content of sucrose (0-0·7 g litre-1) decreased and in many cases it had totally disappeared by April. A correlation between sucrose and other sugars was not observed. The concentration of galactose was always low (0·01-0·03 g litre-1). No diurnal variation was observed in the content of any sugar. The highest sap flow was obtained in the third flow week at the end of April and more than one-third of the total sugar yield could be collected during that period.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13526571,~to-add-doi-URL,betula-spp,forest-resources,physiology,secondary-production,tree-sap},
  number = {4}
}
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