Variation in effective number of clones in seed orchards. Kang, K., Harju, A., Lindgren, D., Nikkanen, T., Almqvist, C., & Suh, G. *New Forests*, 21(1):17–33, January, 2001. Paper doi abstract bibtex The effective number of clones (Nc) wasestimated for 255 conifer clonal seed orchards in Finland, Korea, andSweden, based on the variation in the number of ramets among clones. Themean census number of clones (N) varied from 70, in 13 KoreanPinus koraiensis seed orchards, to 139 in 176 Finnish Pinussylvestris seed orchards. The mean effective number of clones(Nc) was 66, with a range from 10 to 421. One fifthof the orchards had Nc between 10 and 40, and twothirds between 41 and 160. On average, the relative effective number ofclones (Nr =Nc/N) was 0.74, with a range from 0.2to almost 1.0. Thus, the census number of clones in a seed orchard isgenerally rather informative, but the effective number of clones is moreinformative. Many of these first-generation seed orchards wereestablished with an intention to have near-equal numbers of ramets foreach clone. The use of effective number of clones may be more importantin future seed orchards and genetically thinned seed orchards.

@article{kang_variation_2001,
title = {Variation in effective number of clones in seed orchards},
volume = {21},
issn = {1573-5095},
url = {https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010785222169},
doi = {10/fv3jmr},
abstract = {The effective number of clones (Nc) wasestimated for 255 conifer clonal seed orchards in Finland, Korea, andSweden, based on the variation in the number of ramets among clones. Themean census number of clones (N) varied from 70, in 13 KoreanPinus koraiensis seed orchards, to 139 in 176 Finnish Pinussylvestris seed orchards. The mean effective number of clones(Nc) was 66, with a range from 10 to 421. One fifthof the orchards had Nc between 10 and 40, and twothirds between 41 and 160. On average, the relative effective number ofclones (Nr =Nc/N) was 0.74, with a range from 0.2to almost 1.0. Thus, the census number of clones in a seed orchard isgenerally rather informative, but the effective number of clones is moreinformative. Many of these first-generation seed orchards wereestablished with an intention to have near-equal numbers of ramets foreach clone. The use of effective number of clones may be more importantin future seed orchards and genetically thinned seed orchards.},
language = {en},
number = {1},
urldate = {2021-11-02},
journal = {New Forests},
author = {Kang, K.S. and Harju, A.M. and Lindgren, D. and Nikkanen, T. and Almqvist, C. and Suh, G.U.},
month = jan,
year = {2001},
pages = {17--33},
}

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