Reducibility among Combinatorial Problems. Karp, R. M. In 50 Years of Integer Programming 1958-2008: From the Early Years to the State-of-the-Art, pages 219–241.
Reducibility among Combinatorial Problems [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
A large class of computational problems involve the determination of properties of graphs, digraphs, integers, arrays of integers, finite families of finite sets, boolean formulas and elements of other countable domains. Through simple encodings from such domains into the set of words over a finite alphabet these problems can be converted into language recognition problems, and we can inquire into their computational complexity. It is reasonable to consider such a problem satisfactorily solved when an algorithm for its solution is found which terminates within a number of steps bounded by a polynomial in the length of the input. We show that a large number of classic unsolved problems of covering, matching, packing, routing, assignment and sequencing are equivalent, in the sense that either each of them possesses a polynomial-bounded algorithm or none of them does.
@incollection{karpReducibilityCombinatorialProblems2010,
  title = {Reducibility among Combinatorial Problems},
  isbn = {978-3-540-68274-5},
  url = {http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/978-1-4684-2001-2_9%5Cnpapers3://publication/doi/10.1007/978-1-4684-2001-2_9},
  abstract = {A large class of computational problems involve the determination of properties of graphs, digraphs, integers, arrays of integers, finite families of finite sets, boolean formulas and elements of other countable domains. Through simple encodings from such domains into the set of words over a finite alphabet these problems can be converted into language recognition problems, and we can inquire into their computational complexity. It is reasonable to consider such a problem satisfactorily solved when an algorithm for its solution is found which terminates within a number of steps bounded by a polynomial in the length of the input. We show that a large number of classic unsolved problems of covering, matching, packing, routing, assignment and sequencing are equivalent, in the sense that either each of them possesses a polynomial-bounded algorithm or none of them does.},
  number = {Chapter 9},
  booktitle = {50 {{Years}} of {{Integer Programming}} 1958-2008: {{From}} the {{Early Years}} to the {{State}}-of-the-{{Art}}},
  date = {2010},
  pages = {219--241},
  author = {Karp, Richard M.},
  file = {/home/dimitri/Nextcloud/Zotero/storage/4IAHTPB5/Karp - 1972 - Reducibility among Combinatorial Problems BT - (null).pdf},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-68279-0_8},
  eprinttype = {pmid},
  eprint = {15890271}
}
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