Tilia Platyphyllos - Version 2014.3. Khela, S. In The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, pages 203361/0+.
Tilia Platyphyllos - Version 2014.3 [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
[Excerpt] Global and European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)Large-leaved Lime, Tilia platyphyllos, is a long-lived, tall deciduous tree species native throughout Europe. In northern Europe, it is rare and regeneration is sparse; the largest number of individuals is in mature old forests with fewer individuals found in younger stands. Threats to the species include expansion of farming, fragmentation and destruction of biotopes leading to inbreeding, intensive pruning for lime flowers, heavy livestock grazing, and low seed fertility in northern Europe. It is widely utilized for its medicinal properties, and is sourced through collection from the wild and cultivation. Though its distribution has declined over the past 2000 years, it remains widespread, including in urban and residential areas (though most individuals come from cultivated stock), and is more common in mountainous regions of central and eastern Europe. It is therefore listed as Least Concern. Conservation of older or ancient woodlands is necessary. More information is required on rarity and continued declines, particularly since it is so long-lived and slow declines over long time periods may have substantial impacts on the population. [::Common Name(s)] [::]English - Large-leaved Lime [::Range Description] Large-leaved Lime, Tilia platyphyllos, is native to central and southern Europe (Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2013). Pollen analysis shows that it once had a larger distribution than at present (Turok et al. 1999). Its native status within countries can be doubtful where it has been cultivated (Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora 2012). It is found from 0-1,700 m asl (Pignatti 1982, De Bolos and Vigo 1990). It is introduced in Portugal (F.B. Caldas pers. comm. 2013). [::Countries] Native:Albania; Andorra; Austria; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia, Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom (Great Britain) Introduced:Portugal [::Population] The number of individuals is unknown. Large-leaved Lime is rare in northern Europe where the population has declined over the past 2000 years (Jensen 2003). It is more common in mountainous regions of central and eastern Europe (Turok et al. 1999). Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos form natural inter-specific hybrids when individuals of these species exist in the close proximity; these forms are known as ” common linden” Tilia x europaea (L.) syn. Tilia x vulgaris (Hayne) (Radoglou et al. 2008). In Denmark the population is small, mostly in the south and containing few individuals, with the largest subpopulations found in mature or old forests and few in young stands. Inbreeding is expected to have an impact on its population (Honnay et al. 2004). [::Habitat and Ecology] This tall deciduous tree can live up to 500 years and is found in ancient or old mixed deciduous woodland, growing in calcareous soil as a large tree or coppice stool. It is found in upland areas and also grows on cliff ledges as well as being planted in urban areas (Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora 2012). The EUNIS habitat classification is~Thermophilous Alpine and peri-Alpine mixed (Tilia) forests (European Environment Agency 2010). This species flowers at the age of 30 and maturation of seed and germ is slow; normally seeds germinate two years from harvest with seeds from older trees having a higher germination rate. It can easily reproduce vegetatively through cuttings and root layers and cuttings can be propagated from old trees. [::Use and Trade] Tilia flos (lime flower) consists of the whole dried inflorescence of~Tilia cordata~Miller, of~Tilia~platyphyllos~Scop., of~Tilia x vulgaris~Heyne or a mixture of these as stated in the European Pharmacopoeia 2008. It is used in herbal preparations as a comminuted herbal substance, liquid extract or tincture. The tannin or mucilage content in the flowers produce more flavourable teas and extracts. This species is cultivated in Europe and North America, while the material of commerce originates mainly from Balkan countries (e.g. Bulgaria, Romania, former Yugoslavia, Turkey) and in part from~China. In Bulgaria, an average of 1,246,223 kg of Flos Tiliae is used for export, originating from very good natural stocks or cultivation (Evstatieva et al. 2007). Its use is authorized and regulated in Austria, Czech Republic, Germany (Commission E monographs), Hungary (VIth Hungarian Pharmacopoeia), Lithuania and Poland (Polish Pharmacopoeia of 1970) for treatment of colds and coughs, as it has sedative, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, hypotensive, emollient,~diuretic and mild astringent properties. Lime flower is listed by the Council of Europe as a natural source of food flavouring to be added in small quantities (European Medicines Agency 2012a).~It can easily reproduce vegetatively through cuttings and root layers and cuttings can be propagated from old trees. Tilia wood is used for carving (Jensen 2003). In Montenegro, where it is one of the most exploited species, it is not protected and free for gathering and trade under Official Gazette SRCG No 27/02. There is sufficient source of raw material for commercial interest. It is cultivated in Slovakia where research is carried out for breeding and seed improvement (Baričevič~et al. 2004, Lipman 2009). It is exported from the former Yugoslavia destined for markets in Germany, France, Austria, Italy and the USA (Kathe et al. 2003). [::Major Threat(s)] This species is sensitive to climatic conditions and is not tolerant of frost or drought. In the past, it was threatened by deforestation and invasion by Beech. The distribution has declined over the last 2000 years due to farming expansion and in northern Europe it has declined due to low seed fertility. Inbreeding caused by the extensive fragmentation and destruction of biotopes is expected to have an impact on~both Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos~(Jensen 2003). Intensive pruning for lime flowers and heavy livestock grazing are also significant threats (Radaglou et al. 2008).
@incollection{khelaTiliaPlatyphyllosVersion2013,
  title = {Tilia Platyphyllos - {{Version}} 2014.3},
  booktitle = {The {{IUCN Red List}} of {{Threatened Species}}},
  author = {Khela, S.},
  date = {2013},
  pages = {203361/0+},
  url = {http://mfkp.org/INRMM/article/13621387},
  abstract = {[Excerpt] Global and European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)Large-leaved Lime, Tilia platyphyllos, is a long-lived, tall deciduous tree species native throughout Europe. In northern Europe, it is rare and regeneration is sparse; the largest number of individuals is in mature old forests with fewer individuals found in younger stands. Threats to the species include expansion of farming, fragmentation and destruction of biotopes leading to inbreeding, intensive pruning for lime flowers, heavy livestock grazing, and low seed fertility in northern Europe. It is widely utilized for its medicinal properties, and is sourced through collection from the wild and cultivation. Though its distribution has declined over the past 2000 years, it remains widespread, including in urban and residential areas (though most individuals come from cultivated stock), and is more common in mountainous regions of central and eastern Europe. It is therefore listed as Least Concern. Conservation of older or ancient woodlands is necessary. More information is required on rarity and continued declines, particularly since it is so long-lived and slow declines over long time periods may have substantial impacts on the population. [::Common Name(s)] [::]English - Large-leaved Lime [::Range Description] Large-leaved Lime, Tilia platyphyllos, is native to central and southern Europe (Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2013). Pollen analysis shows that it once had a larger distribution than at present (Turok et al. 1999). Its native status within countries can be doubtful where it has been cultivated (Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora 2012). It is found from 0-1,700 m asl (Pignatti 1982, De Bolos and Vigo 1990). It is introduced in Portugal (F.B. Caldas pers. comm. 2013). [::Countries] Native:Albania; Andorra; Austria; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Italy (Italy (mainland)); Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia, Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom (Great Britain) Introduced:Portugal [::Population] The number of individuals is unknown. Large-leaved Lime is rare in northern Europe where the population has declined over the past 2000 years (Jensen 2003). It is more common in mountainous regions of central and eastern Europe (Turok et al. 1999). Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos form natural inter-specific hybrids when individuals of these species exist in the close proximity; these forms are known as ” common linden” Tilia x europaea (L.) syn. Tilia x vulgaris (Hayne) (Radoglou et al. 2008). In Denmark the population is small, mostly in the south and containing few individuals, with the largest subpopulations found in mature or old forests and few in young stands. Inbreeding is expected to have an impact on its population (Honnay et al. 2004). [::Habitat and Ecology] This tall deciduous tree can live up to 500 years and is found in ancient or old mixed deciduous woodland, growing in calcareous soil as a large tree or coppice stool. It is found in upland areas and also grows on cliff ledges as well as being planted in urban areas (Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora 2012). The EUNIS habitat classification is~Thermophilous Alpine and peri-Alpine mixed (Tilia) forests (European Environment Agency 2010). This species flowers at the age of 30 and maturation of seed and germ is slow; normally seeds germinate two years from harvest with seeds from older trees having a higher germination rate. It can easily reproduce vegetatively through cuttings and root layers and cuttings can be propagated from old trees. [::Use and Trade] Tilia flos (lime flower) consists of the whole dried inflorescence of~Tilia cordata~Miller, of~Tilia~platyphyllos~Scop., of~Tilia x vulgaris~Heyne or a mixture of these as stated in the European Pharmacopoeia 2008. It is used in herbal preparations as a comminuted herbal substance, liquid extract or tincture. The tannin or mucilage content in the flowers produce more flavourable teas and extracts. This species is cultivated in Europe and North America, while the material of commerce originates mainly from Balkan countries (e.g. Bulgaria, Romania, former Yugoslavia, Turkey) and in part from~China. In Bulgaria, an average of 1,246,223 kg of Flos Tiliae is used for export, originating from very good natural stocks or cultivation (Evstatieva et al. 2007). Its use is authorized and regulated in Austria, Czech Republic, Germany (Commission E monographs), Hungary (VIth Hungarian Pharmacopoeia), Lithuania and Poland (Polish Pharmacopoeia of 1970) for treatment of colds and coughs, as it has sedative, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, hypotensive, emollient,~diuretic and mild astringent properties. Lime flower is listed by the Council of Europe as a natural source of food flavouring to be added in small quantities (European Medicines Agency 2012a).~It can easily reproduce vegetatively through cuttings and root layers and cuttings can be propagated from old trees. Tilia wood is used for carving (Jensen 2003). In Montenegro, where it is one of the most exploited species, it is not protected and free for gathering and trade under Official Gazette SRCG No 27/02. There is sufficient source of raw material for commercial interest. It is cultivated in Slovakia where research is carried out for breeding and seed improvement (Baričevič~et al. 2004, Lipman 2009). It is exported from the former Yugoslavia destined for markets in Germany, France, Austria, Italy and the USA (Kathe et al. 2003). [::Major Threat(s)] This species is sensitive to climatic conditions and is not tolerant of frost or drought. In the past, it was threatened by deforestation and invasion by Beech. The distribution has declined over the last 2000 years due to farming expansion and in northern Europe it has declined due to low seed fertility. Inbreeding caused by the extensive fragmentation and destruction of biotopes is expected to have an impact on~both Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos~(Jensen 2003). Intensive pruning for lime flowers and heavy livestock grazing are also significant threats (Radaglou et al. 2008).},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13621387,conservation,forest-resources,iucn,iucn-least-concern-lc,tilia-platyphyllos}
}
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