Malus Sylvestris - Version 2014.3. Kik, C.; Korpelainen, H.; Vögel, R.; Asdal, Å.; Eliáš, P.; Draper, D.; and Magos Brehm, J. In The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, pages 172170/0+.
Malus Sylvestris - Version 2014.3 [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
[Excerpt] Global and European regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD) EU 27 regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)Although Malus sylvestris is relatively widely distributed in Europe, hybridization with cultivated M. domestica is thought to be having a significant impact on the population. It is not known to what extent the genetic diversity of the species has been affected; therefore, it is regionally assessed as Data Deficient. [::Common Name(s)] [::]English - Crab Apple, European Crab Apple, Pommier Sauvage [::Taxonomic Notes] Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. is a primary wild relative of apple, M. domestica Borkh. (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2010). Three subspecies are native to Europe: M. sylvestris ssp. orientalis (Uglitzk.) Browicz, M. sylvestris ssp. praecox (Pall.) Soó and M. sylvestris (L.) Mill. ssp. sylvestris (Kurtto 2009). [::Range Description] M. sylvestris is native to many parts of northern, middle, east, southeastern and southwestern Europe (GRIN 2010).Knowledge of its national distribution in Europe is as follows: Finland: occurs in the southwest. Norway: scattered in the north; more common in south. Slovakia: common throughout the country (Marhold 1992).\textasciitilde Netherlands: widespread (Mennema et al. 1985). Portugal: only in the north. Spain: widespread. France: widespread throughout the most of the country but not recorded in the departments of Paris and Seine-Saint-Denis in the north, Rhône to the east or Lot-et-Garonne to the southwest (Association Tela Botanica 2000-2010). United Kingdom: widespread throughout the whole of England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland, although its distribution is patchy in northern Scotland (Preston et al. 2002). Ireland: widespread throughout the whole of the country (Preston et al. 2002). [::Countries] Native:Albania; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Ireland; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Romania; Russian Federation (Central European Russia, East European Russia, Kaliningrad, North European Russia, Northwest European Russia, South European Russia); Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia, Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey (Turkey-in-Europe); Ukraine (Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland) [::Population] Knowledge of the European subpopulation is available for the following countries: Finland: infrequent. Italy: not very common. Slovakia: stable. Germany: common but hybridized with cultivated plants. Netherlands: before 1950 the species occurred in 124 hour-squares and after 1950 in 628 hour-squares (Mennema et al. 1985). Tamis et al. (2003) reported that the species occurs in 3,001-10,000 1x1 km grid squares. [::Habitat and Ecology] In Finland, this species grows in rocky, herb-rich forests, waterfront thickets and forests and rich meadows – it favours limy soil (H. Korpelainen pers. comm. 2010). In the United Kingdom and Ireland it grows in hedgerows, scrub, copses, roadsides and also on rough ground (Preston et al. 2002), while in the Netherlands, it grows in forests and shrubwoods on humid and moderately fertile soils (Tamis et al. 2003). Where the species grows in forest margins, it has to compete with taller forest species. In Iberia, it grows from sea level to 1,800 m, in Germany the maximum altitude is 1,000 m, while in Norway it is 550 m. [::Use and Trade] M. sylvestris is a primary wild relative of and potential gene donor to apple, M. domestica and is also a widely cultivated ornamental tree. It is sometimes collected from the wild for food (for humans and farmed animals) and for medicinal purposes. [::Major Threat(s)] The main threats are hybridization with M. domestica and forest management, particularly as the species tends to grow in forest margins. As the plants mainly occur as isolated individuals, rather than as viable populations, they are susceptible to events.
@incollection{kikMalusSylvestrisVersion2013,
  title = {Malus Sylvestris - {{Version}} 2014.3},
  booktitle = {The {{IUCN Red List}} of {{Threatened Species}}},
  author = {Kik, C. and Korpelainen, H. and Vögel, R. and Asdal, Å. and Eliáš, P. and Draper, D. and Magos Brehm, J.},
  date = {2013},
  pages = {172170/0+},
  url = {http://mfkp.org/INRMM/article/13621386},
  abstract = {[Excerpt] Global and European regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD) EU 27 regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)Although Malus sylvestris is relatively widely distributed in Europe, hybridization with cultivated M. domestica is thought to be having a significant impact on the population. It is not known to what extent the genetic diversity of the species has been affected; therefore, it is regionally assessed as Data Deficient. [::Common Name(s)] [::]English - Crab Apple, European Crab Apple, Pommier Sauvage [::Taxonomic Notes] Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. is a primary wild relative of apple, M. domestica Borkh. (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2010). Three subspecies are native to Europe: M. sylvestris ssp. orientalis (Uglitzk.) Browicz, M. sylvestris ssp. praecox (Pall.) Soó and M. sylvestris (L.) Mill. ssp. sylvestris (Kurtto 2009). [::Range Description] M. sylvestris is native to many parts of northern, middle, east, southeastern and southwestern Europe (GRIN 2010).Knowledge of its national distribution in Europe is as follows: Finland: occurs in the southwest. Norway: scattered in the north; more common in south. Slovakia: common throughout the country (Marhold 1992).\textasciitilde{} Netherlands: widespread (Mennema et al. 1985). Portugal: only in the north. Spain: widespread. France: widespread throughout the most of the country but not recorded in the departments of Paris and Seine-Saint-Denis in the north, Rhône to the east or Lot-et-Garonne to the southwest (Association Tela Botanica 2000-2010). United Kingdom: widespread throughout the whole of England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland, although its distribution is patchy in northern Scotland (Preston et al. 2002). Ireland: widespread throughout the whole of the country (Preston et al. 2002). [::Countries] Native:Albania; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Germany; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Hungary; Ireland; Italy (Italy (mainland), Sardegna, Sicilia); Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal (Portugal (mainland)); Romania; Russian Federation (Central European Russia, East European Russia, Kaliningrad, North European Russia, Northwest European Russia, South European Russia); Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia, Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey (Turkey-in-Europe); Ukraine (Ukraine (main part)); United Kingdom (Great Britain, Northern Ireland) [::Population] Knowledge of the European subpopulation is available for the following countries: Finland: infrequent. Italy: not very common. Slovakia: stable. Germany: common but hybridized with cultivated plants. Netherlands: before 1950 the species occurred in 124 hour-squares and after 1950 in 628 hour-squares (Mennema et al. 1985). Tamis et al. (2003) reported that the species occurs in 3,001-10,000 1x1 km grid squares. [::Habitat and Ecology] In Finland, this species grows in rocky, herb-rich forests, waterfront thickets and forests and rich meadows -- it favours limy soil (H. Korpelainen pers. comm. 2010). In the United Kingdom and Ireland it grows in hedgerows, scrub, copses, roadsides and also on rough ground (Preston et al. 2002), while in the Netherlands, it grows in forests and shrubwoods on humid and moderately fertile soils (Tamis et al. 2003). Where the species grows in forest margins, it has to compete with taller forest species. In Iberia, it grows from sea level to 1,800 m, in Germany the maximum altitude is 1,000 m, while in Norway it is 550 m. [::Use and Trade] M. sylvestris is a primary wild relative of and potential gene donor to apple, M. domestica and is also a widely cultivated ornamental tree. It is sometimes collected from the wild for food (for humans and farmed animals) and for medicinal purposes. [::Major Threat(s)] The main threats are hybridization with M. domestica and forest management, particularly as the species tends to grow in forest margins. As the plants mainly occur as isolated individuals, rather than as viable populations, they are susceptible to events.},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13621386,conservation,forest-resources,iucn,iucn-data-deficient-dd,malus-sylvestris}
}
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