Abies Nordmanniana - Version 2014.3. Knees, S. and Gardner, M. In The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, pages 42293/0+.
Abies Nordmanniana - Version 2014.3 [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
[Excerpt] As this species forms extensive forests which are largely intact and has a widespread distribution throughout the Black Sea Region of northwestern Turkey, eastwards to the western Caucasus, it has been assessed as being of Least Concern. [::Common Name(s)] [::]English - Caucasian Fir, Kazazdagi Fir, Nordmann Fir [::Taxonomic Notes] On the IUCN Red List the~Abies~populations in northwestern Turkey are all treated as either~Abies nordmanniana~ssp.~nordmanniana~or~A. nordmanniana~ssp.~equitrojani. This second taxon is restricted to two areas -~Kaz-Daghi (Mt. Ida) and Ulu-Dagh (Mt. Olympus). All other populations in northwest Turkey are treated as the typical subspecies.~Abies bornmuelleriana~Mattf. is included within~A. nordmanniana~ssp.~nordmanniana~instead of being a distinct species from the mountains along the Black Sea in northwestern Turkey. Most authorities in Turkey accept~A. bormuelleriana~and~A. equi-trojani~as distinct species with~Abies nordmanniana~restricted to eastern parts of Turkey and adjoining areas of the Caucasus (Cicek~et al. 2005,~Kaya~et al.~2008). [::Range Description] The distribution is mainly confined to the mountains adjacent to southern and eastern Black Sea area. There is a concentration of\textasciitilde forests (A. nordmanniana ssp. nordmanniana) in west Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia) and northeast Anatolia (Turkey) and another concentration in northwest Anatolia (Turkey). In the extreme northwest of Anatolia lies two disjunct areas (Balikesir; Kaz-Daghi (Mt. Ida .), Bursa; Ulu-Dagh (Mt. Olympus of Bithynia)) where A. nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani occurs. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are not known for A. nordmanniana but the extent of the distribution of this species clearly exceeds any criteria for threatened. [::Countries] Native:Armenia (Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh); Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan); Georgia (Abkhaziya, Adzhariya); Russian Federation (Krasnodar); Turkey [::Population] It occurs in three subpopulations. 1. West Caucasus and northeast Anatolia (Turkey); 2. Turkey - Northwest Anatolia, from Ulu Dag (Olympus) in the west to Kizil Irmak river valley in the east (sometimes referred to as A. bornmuelleriana); 3. Turkey - Kazdagi Mountains in west Anatolia (A. nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani) (Browicz 1982) [::Habitat and Ecology] High montane zones of mountains on deep fertile soils derived from igneous and granite rocks. It forms both pure stands and mixed with Picea orientalis, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra. In the Caucasus it occurs between 1,200-2,200 asl but on damper northern slopes it can grow between 600-800 m asl and in Turkey its altitudinal range is between 200-1,900 m (Browicz 1982). [::Use and Trade] An important timber tree in the Caucasus and Turkey where it is highly valued for its straight grain and easily workable wood for building materials, especially veneer (Farjon 2010). It is used as a commercial plantation tree in many European countries where it is often grown for the Christmas Tree market. [::Major Threat(s)] Even though the wood is highly prized, logging has not had a significant detrimental impact on the population. However, the habitat of\textasciitilde A. nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani is in decline due to a number of negative effects including acid rain, fire, local timber extraction and habitat degradation associated with large visitor numbers in Kazdagi National Park (Satil 2009).
@incollection{kneesAbiesNordmannianaVersion2011,
  title = {Abies Nordmanniana - {{Version}} 2014.3},
  booktitle = {The {{IUCN Red List}} of {{Threatened Species}}},
  author = {Knees, S. and Gardner, M.},
  date = {2011},
  pages = {42293/0+},
  url = {http://mfkp.org/INRMM/article/13496236___to-archive},
  abstract = {[Excerpt] As this species forms extensive forests which are largely intact and has a widespread distribution throughout the Black Sea Region of northwestern Turkey, eastwards to the western Caucasus, it has been assessed as being of Least Concern.

[::Common Name(s)] [::]English - Caucasian Fir, Kazazdagi Fir, Nordmann Fir

[::Taxonomic Notes] On the IUCN Red List the~Abies~populations in northwestern Turkey are all treated as either~Abies nordmanniana~ssp.~nordmanniana~or~A. nordmanniana~ssp.~equitrojani. This second taxon is restricted to two areas -~Kaz-Daghi (Mt. Ida) and Ulu-Dagh (Mt. Olympus). All other populations in northwest Turkey are treated as the typical subspecies.~Abies bornmuelleriana~Mattf. is included within~A. nordmanniana~ssp.~nordmanniana~instead of being a distinct species from the mountains along the Black Sea in northwestern Turkey. Most authorities in Turkey accept~A. bormuelleriana~and~A. equi-trojani~as distinct species with~Abies nordmanniana~restricted to eastern parts of Turkey and adjoining areas of the Caucasus (Cicek~et al. 2005,~Kaya~et al.~2008).

[::Range Description] The distribution is mainly confined to the mountains adjacent to southern and eastern Black Sea area. There is a concentration of\textasciitilde{} forests (A. nordmanniana ssp. nordmanniana) in west Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia) and northeast Anatolia (Turkey) and another concentration in northwest Anatolia (Turkey). In the extreme northwest of Anatolia lies two disjunct areas (Balikesir; Kaz-Daghi (Mt. Ida .), Bursa; Ulu-Dagh (Mt. Olympus of Bithynia)) where A. nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani occurs. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are not known for A. nordmanniana but the extent of the distribution of this species clearly exceeds any criteria for threatened.

[::Countries] Native:Armenia (Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh); Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan); Georgia (Abkhaziya, Adzhariya); Russian Federation (Krasnodar); Turkey

[::Population]  It occurs in three subpopulations. 1. West Caucasus and northeast Anatolia (Turkey); 2. Turkey - Northwest Anatolia, from Ulu Dag (Olympus) in the west to Kizil Irmak river valley in the east (sometimes referred to as A. bornmuelleriana); 3. Turkey - Kazdagi Mountains in west Anatolia (A. nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani) (Browicz 1982)

[::Habitat and Ecology]  High montane zones of mountains on deep fertile soils derived from igneous and granite rocks. It forms both pure stands and mixed with Picea orientalis, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra. In the Caucasus it occurs between 1,200-2,200 asl but on damper northern slopes it can grow between 600-800 m asl and in Turkey its altitudinal range is between 200-1,900 m (Browicz 1982).

[::Use and Trade]  An important timber tree in the Caucasus and Turkey where it is highly valued for its straight grain and easily workable wood for building materials, especially veneer (Farjon 2010). It is used as a commercial plantation tree in many European countries where it is often grown for the Christmas Tree market.

[::Major Threat(s)]  Even though the wood is highly prized, logging has not had a significant detrimental impact on the population. However, the habitat of\textasciitilde{} A. nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani is in decline due to a number of negative effects including acid rain, fire, local timber extraction and habitat degradation associated with large visitor numbers in Kazdagi National Park (Satil 2009).},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-13496236,abies-nordmanniana,conservation,ecology,monography}
}
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