Secular Evolution and the Formation of Pseudobulges in Disk Galaxies. Kormendy, J. and Kennicutt, R., C. Annual Review of Astronomy &Astrophysics, vol. 42, Issue 1, pp.603-683, 42:603-683, 2004.
Secular Evolution and the Formation of Pseudobulges in Disk Galaxies [pdf]Paper  Secular Evolution and the Formation of Pseudobulges in Disk Galaxies [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
We review internal processes of secular evolution in galaxy disks, concentrating on the buildup of dense central features that look like classical, merger-built bulges but that were made slowly out of disk gas. We call these pseudobulges. As an existence proof, we review how bars rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings, and gas dumped into the center. In simulations, this gas reaches high densities that plausibly feed star formation. In the observations, many SB and oval galaxies show central concentrations of gas and star formation. Star formation rates imply plausible pseudobulge growth times of a few billion years. If secular processes built dense central components that masquerade as bulges, can we distinguish them from merger-built bulges? Observations show that pseudobulges retain a memory of their disky origin. They have one or more characteristics of disks: (1) flatter shapes than those of classical bulges, (2) large ratios of ordered to random velocities indicative of disk dynamics, (3) small velocity dispersions, (4) spiral structure or nuclear bars in the bulge part of the light profile, (5) nearly exponential brightness profiles, and (6) starbursts. These structures occur preferentially in barred and oval galaxies in which secular evolution should be rapid. So the cleanest examples of pseudobulges are recognizable. Thus a large variety of observational and theoretical results contribute to a new picture of galaxy evolution that complements hierarchical clustering and merging.
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 title = {Secular Evolution and the Formation of Pseudobulges in Disk Galaxies},
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 year = {2004},
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 pages = {603-683},
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 websites = {http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0407343%5Cnhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.astro.42.053102.134024},
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 abstract = {We review internal processes of secular evolution in galaxy disks, concentrating on the buildup of dense central features that look like classical, merger-built bulges but that were made slowly out of disk gas. We call these pseudobulges. As an existence proof, we review how bars rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings, and gas dumped into the center. In simulations, this gas reaches high densities that plausibly feed star formation. In the observations, many SB and oval galaxies show central concentrations of gas and star formation. Star formation rates imply plausible pseudobulge growth times of a few billion years. If secular processes built dense central components that masquerade as bulges, can we distinguish them from merger-built bulges? Observations show that pseudobulges retain a memory of their disky origin. They have one or more characteristics of disks: (1) flatter shapes than those of classical bulges, (2) large ratios of ordered to random velocities indicative of disk dynamics, (3) small velocity dispersions, (4) spiral structure or nuclear bars in the bulge part of the light profile, (5) nearly exponential brightness profiles, and (6) starbursts. These structures occur preferentially in barred and oval galaxies in which secular evolution should be rapid. So the cleanest examples of pseudobulges are recognizable. Thus a large variety of observational and theoretical results contribute to a new picture of galaxy evolution that complements hierarchical clustering and merging.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Kormendy, John and Kennicutt, Robert C.},
 journal = {Annual Review of Astronomy &Astrophysics, vol. 42, Issue 1, pp.603-683}
}
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