Sensors for glucose monitoring: technical and clinical aspects. Koschinsky, T. and Heinemann, L. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews.
abstract   bibtex   
The aim of this article is to critically discuss the technical and clinical aspects of glucose sensors and to briefly review current technical developments. This includes sensors for spot glucose measurements as well as those used for continuous glucose monitoring. Continuous glucose monitoring in particular should supply the diabetic patient with all the information required to optimize insulin therapy and metabolic control. Such systems should also allow hypo- and hyperglycemic episodes to be avoided. During the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to develop glucose sensors, and new major breakthroughs have been announced repeatedly. However, up until now no glucose sensor has been available that can be used by diabetic patients in daily life conditions. Also one type of glucose sensor, a glucose electrode, recently received approval by the Food and Drug Administration (USA) and is commercially available. Other glucose sensors employing the transdermal, microdialysis or open tissue microperfusion technique are currently under clinical development and may also become available in the near future. The types of glucose sensors referred to so far are not truly non-invasive, but only minimally invasive. They measure glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid of the skin or the subcutis. Non-invasive optical glucose sensors are designed to monitor glucose changes in the skin by directing light through it. They measure the characteristics of the reflected light that are changed as the result of an interaction with glucose. However, none of the attempts with optical glucose sensors have resulted thus far in the development of a sensor that allows monitoring of glucose with sufficient accuracy and precision within the clinically relevant glucose range in daily life conditions. Nevertheless, more minimal-invasive glucose sensors systems will become available for practical use in the near future, whereas it is still uncertain if this can be said for any non-invasive glucose sensor.
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 title = {Sensors for glucose monitoring: technical and clinical aspects.},
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 abstract = {The aim of this article is to critically discuss the technical and clinical aspects of glucose sensors and to briefly review current technical developments. This includes sensors for spot glucose measurements as well as those used for continuous glucose monitoring. Continuous glucose monitoring in particular should supply the diabetic patient with all the information required to optimize insulin therapy and metabolic control. Such systems should also allow hypo- and hyperglycemic episodes to be avoided. During the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to develop glucose sensors, and new major breakthroughs have been announced repeatedly. However, up until now no glucose sensor has been available that can be used by diabetic patients in daily life conditions. Also one type of glucose sensor, a glucose electrode, recently received approval by the Food and Drug Administration (USA) and is commercially available. Other glucose sensors employing the transdermal, microdialysis or open tissue microperfusion technique are currently under clinical development and may also become available in the near future. The types of glucose sensors referred to so far are not truly non-invasive, but only minimally invasive. They measure glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid of the skin or the subcutis. Non-invasive optical glucose sensors are designed to monitor glucose changes in the skin by directing light through it. They measure the characteristics of the reflected light that are changed as the result of an interaction with glucose. However, none of the attempts with optical glucose sensors have resulted thus far in the development of a sensor that allows monitoring of glucose with sufficient accuracy and precision within the clinically relevant glucose range in daily life conditions. Nevertheless, more minimal-invasive glucose sensors systems will become available for practical use in the near future, whereas it is still uncertain if this can be said for any non-invasive glucose sensor.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Koschinsky, T and Heinemann, L},
 journal = {Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews}
}
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