Europe. Kovats, R. S., Valentini, R., Bouwer, L. M., Georgopoulou, E., Jacob, D., Martin, E., Rounsevell, M., Soussana, J., Beniston, M., Chiriacò, M. V., Cury, P., Davies, M., Harrison, P., Jonkeren, O., Koetse, M., Lindner, M., Matzarakis, A., Mechler, R., Menzel, A., Metzger, M., Montanarella, L., Navarra, A., Petersen, J., Price, M., Revich, B., Rietveld, P., Sabbioni, C., Sarafidis, Y., Skirbekk, V., Spano, D., Vermaat, J. E., Watkiss, P., Wilson, M., & Zylicz, T. In Barros, V. R., Field, C. B., Dokke, D. J., Mastrandrea, M. D., Mach, K. J., Bilir, T. E., Chatterjee, M., Ebi, K. L., Estrada, Y. O., Genova, R. C., Girma, B., Kissel, E. S., Levy, A. N., MacCracken, S., Mastrandrea, P. R., & White, L. L., editors, Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability - Part B: Regional Aspects - Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, pages 1267–1326. Cambridge University Press.
Europe [link]Paper  abstract   bibtex   
[Excerpt: Executive Summary] [::] Observed climate trends and future climate projections show regionally varying changes in temperature and rainfall in Europe (high confidence), 23.2.2 in agreement with Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) findings, with projected increases in temperature throughout Europe and increasing precipitation in Northern Europe and decreasing precipitation in Southern Europe. 23.2.2.2 Climate projections show a marked increase in high temperature extremes (high confidence), meteorological droughts (medium confidence), 23.2.3 and heavy precipitation events (high confidence), 23.2.2.3 with variations across Europe, and small or no changes in wind speed extremes (low confidence) except increases in winter wind speed extremes over Central and Northern Europe (medium confidence). 23.2.2.3 [::] Observed climate change in Europe has had wide ranging effects throughout the European region including the distribution, phenology, and abundance of animal, fish, and plant species (high confidence) 23.6.4-5; Table 23-6; stagnating wheat yields in some sub-regions (medium confidence, limited evidence) 23.4.1; and forest decline in some sub-regions (medium confidence). 23.4.4 Climate change has affected both human health (from increased heat waves) (medium confidence) 23.5.1 and animal health (changes in infectious diseases) (high confidence). 23.4.2 There is less evidence of impacts on social systems attributable to observed climate change, except in pastoralist populations (low confidence). 23.5.3 [::] Climate change will increase the likelihood of systemic failures across European countries caused by extreme climate events affecting multiple sectors (medium confidence). 23.2.2.3, 23.2.3, 23.3-6, 23.9.1 Extreme weather events currently have significant impacts in Europe in multiple economic sectors as well as adverse social and health effects (high confidence). Table 23-1 There is limited evidence that resilience to heat waves and fires has improved in Europe (medium confidence), 23.9.1, 23.5 while some countries have improved their flood protection following major flood events. 23.9.1, 23.7.3 Climate change is very likely to increase the frequency and intensity of heat waves, particularly in Southern Europe (high confidence), 23.2.2 with mostly adverse implications for health, agriculture, forestry, energy production and use, transport, tourism, labor productivity, and the built environment. 23.3.2-4, 23.3.6, 23.4.1-4, 23.5.1; Table 23-1 [::] The provision of ecosystem services is projected to decline across all service categories in response to climate change in Southern Europe (high confidence). 23.9.1; Box 23-1 Both gains and losses in the provision of ecosystem services are projected for the other European sub-regions (high confidence), but the provision of cultural services is projected to decline in the Continental, Northern, and Southern sub-regions (low confidence). Box 23-1 [::] Climate change is expected to impede economic activity in Southern Europe more than in other sub-regions (medium confidence) 23.9.1; Table 23-4, and may increase future intra-regional disparity (low confidence). 23.9.1 There are also important differences in vulnerability within sub-regions; for example, plant species and some economic sectors are most vulnerable in high mountain areas due to lack of adaptation options (medium confidence). 23.9.1 Southern Europe is particularly vulnerable to climate change (high confidence), as multiple sectors will be adversely affected (tourism, agriculture, forestry, infrastructure, energy, population health) (high confidence). 23.9; Table 23-4 [::] The impacts of sea level rise on populations and infrastructure in coastal regions can be reduced by adaptation (medium confidence). 23.3.1, 23.5.3 Populations in urban areas are particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts because of the high density of people and built infrastructure (medium confidence). 23.3, 23.5.1 [::] Synthesis of evidence across sectors and sub-regions confirm that there are limits to adaptation from physical, social, economic, and technological factors (high confidence). 23.7; Table 23-3 Adaptation is further impeded because climate change affects multiple sectors. 23.7 The majority of published assessments are based on climate projections in the range 1°C to 4°C global mean temperature per century. Limited evidence exists regarding the potential impacts in Europe under high rates of warming ($>$4°C global mean temperature per century). 23.9.1 [] [...]
@incollection{kovatsEurope2014,
  title = {Europe},
  booktitle = {Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability - {{Part B}}: Regional Aspects - {{Contribution}} of {{Working Group II}} to the {{Fifth Assessment Report}} of the {{Intergovernmental Panel}} on {{Climate Change}}},
  author = {Kovats, R. Sari and Valentini, Riccardo and Bouwer, Laurens M. and Georgopoulou, Elena and Jacob, Daniela and Martin, Eric and Rounsevell, Mark and Soussana, Jean-Francois and Beniston, Martin and Chiriacò, Maria V. and Cury, Philippe and Davies, Michael and Harrison, Paula and Jonkeren, Olaf and Koetse, Mark and Lindner, Markus and Matzarakis, Andreas and Mechler, Reinhard and Menzel, Annette and Metzger, Marc and Montanarella, Luca and Navarra, Antonio and Petersen, Juliane and Price, Martin and Revich, Boris and Rietveld, Piet and Sabbioni, Cristina and Sarafidis, Yannis and Skirbekk, Vegard and Spano, Donatella and Vermaat, Jan E. and Watkiss, Paul and Wilson, Meriwether and Zylicz, Thomasz},
  editor = {Barros, V. R. and Field, C. B. and Dokke, D. J. and Mastrandrea, M. D. and Mach, K. J. and Bilir, T. E. and Chatterjee, M. and Ebi, K. L. and Estrada, Y. O. and Genova, R. C. and Girma, B. and Kissel, E. S. and Levy, A. N. and MacCracken, S. and Mastrandrea, P. R. and White, L. L.},
  date = {2014},
  pages = {1267--1326},
  publisher = {{Cambridge University Press}},
  location = {{Cambridge}},
  url = {http://mfkp.org/INRMM/article/14173146},
  abstract = {[Excerpt: Executive Summary] 

[::] Observed climate trends and future climate projections show regionally varying changes in temperature and rainfall in Europe (high confidence), 23.2.2 in agreement with Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) findings, with projected increases in temperature throughout Europe and increasing precipitation in Northern Europe and decreasing precipitation in Southern Europe. 23.2.2.2 Climate projections show a marked increase in high temperature extremes (high confidence), meteorological droughts (medium confidence), 23.2.3 and heavy precipitation events (high confidence), 23.2.2.3 with variations across Europe, and small or no changes in wind speed extremes (low confidence) except increases in winter wind speed extremes over Central and Northern Europe (medium confidence). 23.2.2.3

[::] Observed climate change in Europe has had wide ranging effects throughout the European region including the distribution, phenology, and abundance of animal, fish, and plant species (high confidence) 23.6.4-5; Table 23-6; stagnating wheat yields in some sub-regions (medium confidence, limited evidence) 23.4.1; and forest decline in some sub-regions (medium confidence). 23.4.4 Climate change has affected both human health (from increased heat waves) (medium confidence) 23.5.1 and animal health (changes in infectious diseases) (high confidence). 23.4.2 There is less evidence of impacts on social systems attributable to observed climate change, except in pastoralist populations (low confidence). 23.5.3

[::] Climate change will increase the likelihood of systemic failures across European countries caused by extreme climate events affecting multiple sectors (medium confidence). 23.2.2.3, 23.2.3, 23.3-6, 23.9.1 Extreme weather events currently have significant impacts in Europe in multiple economic sectors as well as adverse social and health effects (high confidence). Table 23-1 There is limited evidence that resilience to heat waves and fires has improved in Europe (medium confidence), 23.9.1, 23.5 while some countries have improved their flood protection following major flood events. 23.9.1, 23.7.3 Climate change is very likely to increase the frequency and intensity of heat waves, particularly in Southern Europe (high confidence), 23.2.2 with mostly adverse implications for health, agriculture, forestry, energy production and use, transport, tourism, labor productivity, and the built environment. 23.3.2-4, 23.3.6, 23.4.1-4, 23.5.1; Table 23-1

[::] The provision of ecosystem services is projected to decline across all service categories in response to climate change in Southern Europe (high confidence). 23.9.1; Box 23-1 Both gains and losses in the provision of ecosystem services are projected for the other European sub-regions (high confidence), but the provision of cultural services is projected to decline in the Continental, Northern, and Southern sub-regions (low confidence). Box 23-1

[::] Climate change is expected to impede economic activity in Southern Europe more than in other sub-regions (medium confidence) 23.9.1; Table 23-4, and may increase future intra-regional disparity (low confidence). 23.9.1 There are also important differences in vulnerability within sub-regions; for example, plant species and some economic sectors are most vulnerable in high mountain areas due to lack of adaptation options (medium confidence). 23.9.1 Southern Europe is particularly vulnerable to climate change (high confidence), as multiple sectors will be adversely affected (tourism, agriculture, forestry, infrastructure, energy, population health) (high confidence). 23.9; Table 23-4

[::] The impacts of sea level rise on populations and infrastructure in coastal regions can be reduced by adaptation (medium confidence). 23.3.1, 23.5.3 Populations in urban areas are particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts because of the high density of people and built infrastructure (medium confidence). 23.3, 23.5.1

[::] Synthesis of evidence across sectors and sub-regions confirm that there are limits to adaptation from physical, social, economic, and technological factors (high confidence). 23.7; Table 23-3 Adaptation is further impeded because climate change affects multiple sectors. 23.7 The majority of published assessments are based on climate projections in the range 1°C to 4°C global mean temperature per century. Limited evidence exists regarding the potential impacts in Europe under high rates of warming ({$>$}4°C global mean temperature per century). 23.9.1

[] [...]},
  isbn = {978-1-107-68386-0},
  keywords = {*imported-from-citeulike-INRMM,~INRMM-MiD:c-14173146,adaptation,climate-change,climate-projections,impact,ipcc,regional-scale}
}
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