Rehabilitation robotics: pilot trial of a spatial extension for MIT-Manus. Krebs, H.; Ferraro, M.; Buerger, S.; Newbery, M.; Makiyama, A.; Sandmann, M.; Lynch, D.; Volpe, B.; and Hogan, N. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 1(1):5--20, 2004.
Rehabilitation robotics: pilot trial of a spatial extension for MIT-Manus [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
BACKGROUND:Previous results with the planar robot MIT-MANUS demonstrated positive benefits in trials with over 250 stroke patients. Consistent with motor learning, the positive effects did not generalize to other muscle groups or limb segments. Therefore we are designing a new class of robots to exercise other muscle groups or limb segments. This paper presents basic engineering aspects of a novel robotic module that extends our approach to anti-gravity movements out of the horizontal plane and a pilot study with 10 outpatients. Patients were trained during the initial six-weeks with the planar module (i.e., performance-based training limited to horizontal movements with gravity compensation). This training was followed by six-weeks of robotic therapy that focused on performing vertical arm movements against gravity. The 12-week protocol includes three one-hour robot therapy sessions per week (total 36 robot treatment sessions).RESULTS:Pilot study demonstrated that the protocol was safe and well tolerated with no patient presenting any adverse effect. Consistent with our past experience with persons with chronic strokes, there was a statistically significant reduction in tone measurement from admission to discharge of performance-based planar robot therapy and we have not observed increases in muscle tone or spasticity during the anti-gravity training protocol. Pilot results showed also a reduction in shoulder-elbow impairment following planar horizontal training. Furthermore, it suggested an additional reduction in shoulder-elbow impairment following the anti-gravity training.CONCLUSION:Our clinical experiments have focused on a fundamental question of whether task specific robotic training influences brain recovery. To date several studies demonstrate that in mature and damaged nervous systems, nurture indeed has an effect on nature. The improved recovery is most pronounced in the trained limb segments. We have now embarked on experiments that test whether we can continue to influence recovery, long after the acute insult, with a novel class of spatial robotic devices. This pilot results support the pursuit of further clinical trials to test efficacy and the pursuit of optimal therapy following brain injury.
@Article{Krebs2004,
  author    = {Krebs, H. and Ferraro, M. and Buerger, S. and Newbery, M. and Makiyama, A. and Sandmann, M. and Lynch, D. and Volpe, B. and Hogan, N.},
  title     = {Rehabilitation robotics: pilot trial of a spatial extension for MIT-Manus},
  journal   = {Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation},
  year      = {2004},
  volume    = {1},
  number    = {1},
  pages     = {5--20},
  issn      = {1743-0003},
  abstract  = {BACKGROUND:Previous results with the planar robot MIT-MANUS demonstrated positive benefits in trials with over 250 stroke patients. Consistent with motor learning, the positive effects did not generalize to other muscle groups or limb segments. Therefore we are designing a new class of robots to exercise other muscle groups or limb segments. This paper presents basic engineering aspects of a novel robotic module that extends our approach to anti-gravity movements out of the horizontal plane and a pilot study with 10 outpatients. Patients were trained during the initial six-weeks with the planar module (i.e., performance-based training limited to horizontal movements with gravity compensation). This training was followed by six-weeks of robotic therapy that focused on performing vertical arm movements against gravity. The 12-week protocol includes three one-hour robot therapy sessions per week (total 36 robot treatment sessions).RESULTS:Pilot study demonstrated that the protocol was safe and well tolerated with no patient presenting any adverse effect. Consistent with our past experience with persons with chronic strokes, there was a statistically significant reduction in tone measurement from admission to discharge of performance-based planar robot therapy and we have not observed increases in muscle tone or spasticity during the anti-gravity training protocol. Pilot results showed also a reduction in shoulder-elbow impairment following planar horizontal training. Furthermore, it suggested an additional reduction in shoulder-elbow impairment following the anti-gravity training.CONCLUSION:Our clinical experiments have focused on a fundamental question of whether task specific robotic training influences brain recovery. To date several studies demonstrate that in mature and damaged nervous systems, nurture indeed has an effect on nature. The improved recovery is most pronounced in the trained limb segments. We have now embarked on experiments that test whether we can continue to influence recovery, long after the acute insult, with a novel class of spatial robotic devices. This pilot results support the pursuit of further clinical trials to test efficacy and the pursuit of optimal therapy following brain injury.},
  doi       = {10.1186/1743-0003-1-5},
  groups    = {EMBC2013},
  pubmedid  = {15679916},
  timestamp = {2012.11.12},
  url       = {http://www.jneuroengrehab.com/content/1/1/5},
}
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