The proximity and the directional theories of issue voting: Comparative results for the USA and Germany. Krämer, J. & Rattinger, H. European Journal of Political Research, 32(1):1--29, 1997.
The proximity and the directional theories of issue voting: Comparative results for the USA and Germany [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
In several recent studies George Rabinowitz and his co-authors challenge the `classical' spatial model of issue voting, the proximity model, by introducing a directional model. In this article we examine whether different measurement of perceived issue positions of candidates or parties leads to diverging judgments about the predictive power of the directional model (which is claimed to be empirically superior), as compared to the proximity model, using data from the USA and Germany. The results demonstrate that the measurement preferred by Rabinowitz et al. tends to bias empirical findings in favour of directional theory. If we use a more plausible operational definition of issue positions of candidates and parties the directional model in both countries fails to turn out superior.
@article{ kramer_proximity_1997,
  title = {The proximity and the directional theories of issue voting: {Comparative} results for the {USA} and {Germany}},
  volume = {32},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006866319508},
  doi = {10.1023/A:1006866319508},
  abstract = {In several recent studies George Rabinowitz and his co-authors challenge the `classical' spatial model of issue voting, the proximity model, by introducing a directional model. In this article we examine whether different measurement of perceived issue positions of candidates or parties leads to diverging judgments about the predictive power of the directional model (which is claimed to be empirically superior), as compared to the proximity model, using data from the USA and Germany. The results demonstrate that the measurement preferred by Rabinowitz et al. tends to bias empirical findings in favour of directional theory. If we use a more plausible operational definition of issue positions of candidates and parties the directional model in both countries fails to turn out superior.},
  number = {1},
  journal = {European Journal of Political Research},
  author = {Krämer, Jürgen and Rattinger, Hans},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {1--29}
}
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