Synchrone Ost-West-Divergenz in der Blauelster (Cyanopica cyanus) und der Elster (Pica pica) - Synchronic east-west divergence in azure-winged magpies (Cyanopica cyanus) and magpies (Pica pica). Kryukov, A.; Iwasa, M. A.; Kakizawa, R.; Suzuki, H.; Pinsker, W.; and Haring, E. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 42(4):342–351, 2004.
Synchrone Ost-West-Divergenz in der Blauelster (Cyanopica cyanus) und der Elster (Pica pica) - Synchronic east-west divergence in azure-winged magpies (Cyanopica cyanus) and magpies (Pica pica). [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Morphometric and genetic analyses were performed to investigate the relationships between populations of the azure-winged magpie (Cyanopica cyanus). In the morphometric analysis 193 specimens were included representing seven of the nine currently accepted subspecies. Among eight characters analysed, four showed significant differences between samples from Spain and Asia. In contrast, the Asian populations/subspecies are not differentiated morphologically except Cyanopica cyanus japonica. The genetic analysis was based on two mitochondrial sequences (control region, cytochromeb gene). The results are in accordance with the morphometric analysis, showing a clear distinction between birds from the western and eastern distribution ranges. The differentiation of C. c. japonica is not found at the sequence level. Both genetic and morphological data support species status of C. cyanus and Cyanopica cooki. The magpie (Pica pica) was included in the phylogenetic study for comparing intraspecific variation. As in C. cyanus, two clearly separated groups are found, one of them containing the far-eastern populations (Pica pica jankowskii and Pica pica sericea) and the other the remaining subspecies studied. For both the azure-winged magpie and the magpie the sequence data imply an east–west differentiation, probably caused by long lasting isolation that may have even started in the Pliocene or repeated expansions/restrictions of distribution ranges during the Pleistocene.
@article{kryukov_synchrone_2004,
	title = {Synchrone {Ost}-{West}-{Divergenz} in der {Blauelster} ({Cyanopica} cyanus) und der {Elster} ({Pica} pica)  -  {Synchronic} east-west divergence in azure-winged magpies ({Cyanopica} cyanus) and magpies ({Pica} pica).},
	volume = {42},
	issn = {1439-0469},
	url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0469.2004.00287.x/abstract},
	doi = {10.1111/j.1439-0469.2004.00287.x},
	abstract = {Morphometric and genetic analyses were performed to investigate the relationships between populations of the azure-winged magpie (Cyanopica cyanus). In the morphometric analysis 193 specimens were included representing seven of the nine currently accepted subspecies. Among eight characters analysed, four showed significant differences between samples from Spain and Asia. In contrast, the Asian populations/subspecies are not differentiated morphologically except Cyanopica cyanus japonica. The genetic analysis was based on two mitochondrial sequences (control region, cytochromeb gene). The results are in accordance with the morphometric analysis, showing a clear distinction between birds from the western and eastern distribution ranges. The differentiation of C. c. japonica is not found at the sequence level. Both genetic and morphological data support species status of C. cyanus and Cyanopica cooki. The magpie (Pica pica) was included in the phylogenetic study for comparing intraspecific variation. As in C. cyanus, two clearly separated groups are found, one of them containing the far-eastern populations (Pica pica jankowskii and Pica pica sericea) and the other the remaining subspecies studied. For both the azure-winged magpie and the magpie the sequence data imply an east–west differentiation, probably caused by long lasting isolation that may have even started in the Pliocene or repeated expansions/restrictions of distribution ranges during the Pleistocene.},
	language = {en},
	number = {4},
	urldate = {2013-07-14},
	journal = {Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research},
	author = {Kryukov, A. and Iwasa, M. A. and Kakizawa, R. and Suzuki, H. and Pinsker, Wilhelm and Haring, Elisabeth},
	year = {2004},
	keywords = {Aves, B-Geogr, Cyanopica, Cyanopica, D-loop, Dendrogramme, Evolutionsgeschwindigkeit, Evolutionsuhr, Gene, Genetic analysis, Morphol, PCR, Phylo, Phylogenese, Phylogeography, Pica, Pica, Populationen, Sequenz, Sequenzierung, Vögel, impact factor, molecular phylogeny, morphometric analysis, mtDNA, peer reviewed},
	pages = {342--351},
}
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