Formation and growth rates of ultrafine atmospheric particles: a review of observations. Kulmala, M.; Vehkamaki, H.; Petajda, T.; Dal Maso, M.; Lauri, A.; Kerminen, V., M.; Birmili, W.; McMurry, P., H.; Vehkamäki, H.; Petäjä, T.; Dal Maso, M.; Lauri, A.; Kerminen, V., M.; Birmili, W.; and McMurry, P., H. Journal of Aerosol Science, 35(2):143-176, 3, 2004.
Formation and growth rates of ultrafine atmospheric particles: a review of observations [pdf]Paper  Formation and growth rates of ultrafine atmospheric particles: a review of observations [link]Website  abstract   bibtex   
Over the past decade, the formation and growth of nanometer-size atmospheric aerosol particles have been observed at a number of sites around the world. Measurements of particle formation have been performed on different platforms (ground, ships, aircraft) and over different time periods (campaign or continuous-type measurements). The development during the 1990s of new instruments to measure nanoparticle size distributions and several gases that participate in nucleation have enabled these new discoveries. Measurements during nucleation episodes of evolving size distributions down to 3 nm can be used to calculate the apparent source rate of 3-nm particles and the particle growth rate. We have collected existing data from the literature and data banks (campaigns and continuous measurements), representing more than 100 individual investigations. We conclude that the formation rate of 3-nm particles is often in the range 0.01-10 cm(-3) s(-1) in the boundary layer. However, in urban areas formation rates are often higher than this (up to 100 cm(-3) s(-1)), and rates as high as 10(4)-10(5) cm(-3) s(-1) have been observed in coastal areas and industrial plumes. Typical particle growth rates are in the range 1-20 nm h(-1) in mid-latitudes depending on the temperature and the availability of condensable vapours. Over polar areas the growth rate can be as low as 0.1 nm h(-1). Because nucleation can lead to a significant increase in the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei, global climate models will require reliable models for nucleation. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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 title = {Formation and growth rates of ultrafine atmospheric particles: a review of observations},
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 year = {2004},
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 keywords = {Marine boundary-layer,aerosol-size distributions,alpine site jungfraujoch,atmospheric aerosols,condensation gro,condensation growth,condensation nucleus counter,differential mobility analyzer,dimethyl sulfide,free troposphere,nucleation,number concentration,ternary nucleation,urban background area},
 pages = {143-176},
 volume = {35},
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 notes = {<b>From Duplicate 2 (<i>Formation and growth rates of ultrafine atmospheric particles: a review of observations</i> - Kulmala, M; Vehkamaki, H; Petajda, T; Dal Maso, M; Lauri, A; Kerminen, V M; Birmili, W; McMurry, P H)<br/></b><br/>Review},
 abstract = {Over the past decade, the formation and growth of nanometer-size atmospheric aerosol particles have been observed at a number of sites around the world. Measurements of particle formation have been performed on different platforms (ground, ships, aircraft) and over different time periods (campaign or continuous-type measurements). The development during the 1990s of new instruments to measure nanoparticle size distributions and several gases that participate in nucleation have enabled these new discoveries. Measurements during nucleation episodes of evolving size distributions down to 3 nm can be used to calculate the apparent source rate of 3-nm particles and the particle growth rate. We have collected existing data from the literature and data banks (campaigns and continuous measurements), representing more than 100 individual investigations. We conclude that the formation rate of 3-nm particles is often in the range 0.01-10 cm(-3) s(-1) in the boundary layer. However, in urban areas formation rates are often higher than this (up to 100 cm(-3) s(-1)), and rates as high as 10(4)-10(5) cm(-3) s(-1) have been observed in coastal areas and industrial plumes. Typical particle growth rates are in the range 1-20 nm h(-1) in mid-latitudes depending on the temperature and the availability of condensable vapours. Over polar areas the growth rate can be as low as 0.1 nm h(-1). Because nucleation can lead to a significant increase in the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei, global climate models will require reliable models for nucleation. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
 bibtype = {article},
 author = {Kulmala, M. and Vehkamaki, H and Petajda, T and Dal Maso, M. and Lauri, A. and Kerminen, V.-M. M and Birmili, W. and McMurry, P.H. H and Vehkamäki, H. and Petäjä, T. and Dal Maso, M. and Lauri, A. and Kerminen, V.-M. M and Birmili, W. and McMurry, P.H. H},
 journal = {Journal of Aerosol Science},
 number = {2}
}
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