Can cash transfers improve determinants of maternal mortality? Evidence from the household and community programs in Indonesia. Kusuma, D.; Cohen, J.; McConnell, M.; and Berman, P. Social Science & Medicine.
Can cash transfers improve determinants of maternal mortality? Evidence from the household and community programs in Indonesia [link]Paper  doi  abstract   bibtex   
Despite global efforts in maternal health, 303,000 maternal deaths still occurred globally in 2015. One explanation is a considerable inequality in maternal mortality and the sources such as nutritional status and health utilization. One strategy to fight health inequality due to poverty is conditional cash transfer (CCT). Taking advantage of two large clustered-randomized trials in Indonesia from 2007 and 2009, this paper provides evidence on the effects of household cash transfers (PKH) and community cash transfers (Generasi) on determinants of maternal mortality. The sample sizes are 14,000 households for PKH and 12,000 households for Generasi. After two years of implementation, difference-in-differences (DID) analyses show that the two programs can improve determinants of maternal mortality with Generasi provides positive impact in some aspects of determinants, but PKH does not. Generasi improves maternal health knowledge, reduces financial barriers to accessing health services and improves utilization of health services, increases utilization among higher-risk women, improves posyandu equipment, and increases nutritional intake. As for PKH, evidence shows its strongest effects only on utilization of health services. Both programs, however, are unlikely to have a large effect on maternal mortality due to design and implementation issues that might significantly reduce program effectiveness. While the programs improved utilization, they did so at community-based facilities not equipped with emergency obstetric care. In the midst of popularity of household cash transfer, our results show that community cash transfer offers a viable policy alternative to improve the determinants of maternal mortality by allowing more flexibility in activities and at lower cost by monitoring at community level.
@article{kusuma_can_????,
	title = {Can cash transfers improve determinants of maternal mortality? {Evidence} from the household and community programs in {Indonesia}},
	issn = {0277-9536},
	shorttitle = {Can cash transfers improve determinants of maternal mortality?},
	url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027795361630301X},
	doi = {10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.06.020},
	abstract = {Despite global efforts in maternal health, 303,000 maternal deaths still occurred globally in 2015. One explanation is a considerable inequality in maternal mortality and the sources such as nutritional status and health utilization. One strategy to fight health inequality due to poverty is conditional cash transfer (CCT). Taking advantage of two large clustered-randomized trials in Indonesia from 2007 and 2009, this paper provides evidence on the effects of household cash transfers (PKH) and community cash transfers (Generasi) on determinants of maternal mortality. The sample sizes are 14,000 households for PKH and 12,000 households for Generasi. After two years of implementation, difference-in-differences (DID) analyses show that the two programs can improve determinants of maternal mortality with Generasi provides positive impact in some aspects of determinants, but PKH does not. Generasi improves maternal health knowledge, reduces financial barriers to accessing health services and improves utilization of health services, increases utilization among higher-risk women, improves posyandu equipment, and increases nutritional intake. As for PKH, evidence shows its strongest effects only on utilization of health services. Both programs, however, are unlikely to have a large effect on maternal mortality due to design and implementation issues that might significantly reduce program effectiveness. While the programs improved utilization, they did so at community-based facilities not equipped with emergency obstetric care. In the midst of popularity of household cash transfer, our results show that community cash transfer offers a viable policy alternative to improve the determinants of maternal mortality by allowing more flexibility in activities and at lower cost by monitoring at community level.},
	urldate = {2016-06-20},
	journal = {Social Science \& Medicine},
	author = {Kusuma, Dian and Cohen, Jessica and McConnell, Margaret and Berman, Peter},
	keywords = {Clustered-randomized trials, Community, Conditional cash transfers, Determinants of maternal mortality, Household, Indonesia},
	file = {ScienceDirect Full Text PDF:files/54932/Kusuma et al. - Can cash transfers improve determinants of materna.pdf:application/pdf;ScienceDirect Snapshot:files/54933/S027795361630301X.html:text/html}
}
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